**GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus: **The syllabus for all the 25 papers of GATE 2021 varies and is published by IIT Delhi on the official website of GATE 2021. The Instrumentation Engineering syllabus is accessible to the candidates on this page. Candidates will have to answer a total of 65 questions, out of which 55 questions will be based on the Instrumentation Engineering subject and the remaining 10 questions will be based on the General Aptitude section. Candidates can check the IN syllabus from this page.

Contents

## GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering Syllabus

The syllabus of Instrumentation Engineering (IN) consists of 9 broad sections – Engineering Mathematics, Electrical Circuits, Signal and Systems, Control Systems, Analog Electronics, Digital Electronics, Measurements, Sensors, and Industrial Instrumentations & Communication and Optical Instrumentation.

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, consistency and rank, Eigen value and Eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential equations:** First order equation (linear and nonlinear), second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.

**Analysis of complex variables:** Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.

**Probability and Statistics:** Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance; random variables: discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.

**Numerical Methods:** Matrix inversion, solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

**Section 2: Electricity and Magnetism**

Coulomb’s Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Gauss’s Law, Divergence, Electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions, Effect of dielectric medium, Capacitance of simple configurations, Biot‐Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Curl, Faraday’s law, Lorentz force, Inductance, Magnetomotive force, Reluctance, Magnetic circuits, Self and Mutual inductance of simple configurations.

**Section 3: Electrical Circuits and Machines**

**Voltage and current sources:** independent, dependent, ideal and practical; v-i relationships of resistor, inductor, mutual inductance and capacitor; transient analysis of RLC circuits with dc excitation.

Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal analysis, superposition, Thevenin, Norton, maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems.

Peak-, average- and rms values of ac quantities; apparent-, active- and reactive powers; phasor analysis, impedance and admittance; series and parallel resonance, locus diagrams, realization of basic filters with R, L and C elements. transient analysis of RLC circuits with ac excitation.

One-port and two-port networks, driving point impedance and admittance, open-, and short circuit parameters.

**Single phase transformer: **equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, open circuit and short circuit tests, regulation and efficiency; Three phase induction motors: principle of operation, types, performance, torque-speed characteristics, no-load and blocked rotor tests, equivalent circuit, starting and speed control; Types of losses and efficiency calculations of electric machines.

**Section 4: Signals and Systems**

Periodic, aperiodic and impulse signals; Laplace, Fourier and z-transforms; transfer function, frequency response of first and second order linear time invariant systems, impulse response of systems; convolution, correlation. Discrete time system: impulse response, frequency response, pulse transfer function; DFT and FFT; basics of IIR and FIR filters.

**Section 5: Control Systems**

Feedback principles, signal flow graphs, transient response, steady-state-errors, Bode plot, phase and gain margins, Routh and Nyquist criteria, root loci, design of lead, lag and lead-lag compensators, state-space representation of systems; time-delay systems; mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components, synchro pair, servo and stepper motors, servo valves; on-off, P, PI, PID, cascade, feedforward, and ratio controllers, tuning of PID controllers and sizing of control valves.

**Section 6: Analog Electronics**

Characteristics and applications of diode, Zener diode, BJT and MOSFET; small signal analysis of transistor circuits, feedback amplifiers. Characteristics of ideal and practical operational amplifiers; applications of opamps: adder, subtractor, integrator, differentiator, difference amplifier, instrumentation amplifier, precision rectifier, active filters, oscillators, signal generators, voltage controlled oscillators and phase locked loop, sources and effects of noise and interference in electronic circuits.

**Section 7: Digital Electronics**

Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families: TTL and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits, comparators, Schmitt trigger, multi-vibrators, sequential circuits, flipflops, shift registers, timers and counters; sample-and-hold circuit, multiplexer, analog-to-digital (successive approximation, integrating, flash and sigma-delta) and digital-to-analog converters (weighted R, R-2R ladder and current steering logic). Characteristics of ADC and DAC (resolution, quantization, significant bits, conversion/settling time); basics of number systems, Embedded Systems: Microprocessor and microcontroller applications, memory and inputoutput interfacing; basics of data acquisition systems, basics of distributed control systems (DCS) and programmable logic controllers (PLC).

**Section 8: Measurements**

SI units, standards (R,L,C, voltage, current and frequency), systematic and random errors in measurement, expression of uncertainty – accuracy and precision, propagation of errors, linear and weighted regression. Bridges: Wheatstone, Kelvin, Megohm, Maxwell, Anderson, Schering and Wien for measurement of R, L, C and frequency, Q-meter. Measurement of voltage, current and power in single and three phase circuits; ac and dc current probes; true rms meters, voltage and current scaling, instrument transformers, timer/counter, time, phase and frequency measurements, digital voltmeter, digital multimeter; oscilloscope, shielding and grounding.

**Section 9: Sensors and Industrial Instrumentation**

Resistive-, capacitive-, inductive-, piezoelectric-, Hall effect sensors and associated signal conditioning circuits; transducers for industrial instrumentation: displacement (linear and angular), velocity, acceleration, force, torque, vibration, shock, pressure (including low pressure), flow (variable head, variable area, electromagnetic, ultrasonic, turbine and open channel flow meters) temperature (thermocouple, bolometer, RTD (3/4 wire), thermistor, pyrometer and semiconductor); liquid level, pH, conductivity and viscosity measurement. 4-20 mA two-wire transmitter.

**Section 10: Communication and Optical Instrumentation**

**Amplitude-** and frequency modulation and demodulation; Shannon’s sampling theorem, pulse code modulation; frequency and time division multiplexing, amplitude-, phase-, frequency-, quadrature amplitude, pulse shift keying for digital modulation; optical sources and detectors: LED, laser, photo-diode, light dependent resistor, square law detectors and their characteristics; interferometer: applications in metrology; basics of fiber optic sensing. UV-VIS Spectro photometers, Mass spectrometer.

### GATE 2021 General Aptitude Syllabus

General Aptitude section is common in all the papers of GATE 2021. The syllabus for this section also remains the same for all the 25 subjects of GATE 2022. A total of 10 questions will be there in this section. Out of these total questions, 5 questions will carry 1-mark each and the remaining 5 questions will carry 2-marks each. General Aptitude is divided into Verbal Ability and Numerical Ability. The syllabus for the GA section is given below.

Verbal Ability | Numerical Ability |

English grammar, sentence completion, instructions, verbal analogies, word groups, critical reasoning & verbal deduction. | Numerical computation, numerical reasoning, numerical estimation, & data interpretation. |

### GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering Mock Tests

Candidates are suggested to solve as many mock tests as they can. They are an important part of your preparation. Our past toppers highly recommend practicing through the mock tests.

### GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering Exam Pattern

The exam pattern must be gone through by the candidate before starting the GATE 2021 preparation. It is an important step and should not be missed. Preparation should be done according to the exam pattern and the marking scheme so that you score well. The exam pattern of GATE 2021 is given below. Candidates can go through it before moving forward with the preparation.

Section | Total Marks |

GA | 15% of the total marks |

Mathematics | 15% of the total marks |

IN – Subject-Based | 70% of the total marks |

The GATE 2021 will be conducted through the online mode. The exam will be a Computer Based Test. candidates will have to complete the online exam in 3 hours duration. The exam will have two types of questions – MCQs and NATs. A total of 3 sections will be there in the exam – General Aptitude, Mathematics and Subject-based. The total number of questions will be 65 and the total marks will be 100. There will be negative scoring for the MCQs only.

**Marking scheme**

Type of question | Negative marking for wrong answer | Marking for correct answer |

MCQs | ⅓ for 1 mark questions⅔ for 2 marks questions | 1 or 2 marks |

NATs | No negative marking | 1 or 2 marks |

### How to Prepare for GATE Instrumentation Engineering?

Your GATE 2021 preparations should be smart and not tiring. Adopt such strategies that will make it easy to learn and understand the topics. Only 5-6 months are left and there’s a lot to cover in the syllabus. Your preparation will be much easier if you follow certain steps. These steps are mentioned below. Candidates can go through them and jot them down for future reference.

**Standard preparation **

Candidates should prepare from the standard books. These books use language that is easy to understand and learn. They are the most reliable source of preparation for an entrance exam. The concepts are covered pretty well and provide a correct amount of information. You must stick to these books for your preparation. If you prepare well from them then you will ace the exam with ease.

**Solve Mock tests**

During your preparation, try to solve as many mock tests as you can. Take a mock test after every topic you complete. This will help you in strengthening all those topics. Take weekly mock tests too. This will help you in keeping track of your weekly progress. Don’t forget to analyze your performance in every test. Without evaluation, you will not be able to identify your weak areas and you won’t be able to improve them further.

**Accuracy and Speed**

Solving mock tests bring us to our next step. While you are solving mocks, your aim should be gaining accuracy and speed. Both of them are interrelated. Both factors are important in the exam. Through mocks, you should work on increasing your speed. If your speed improves, so will your accuracy.

**Previous years’ question papers**

Candidates should solve previous years’ question papers as well. This will make them familiar with the trend and pattern of the questions that have been followed over the past few years. You should observe the pattern carefully as it will be useful in the exam. Some topics or types of questions are constantly asked in the exam. These questions will bag you scores that you won’t lose if you prepare well from at least 10 last years’ question papers.

**Revise**

Assuming that you have completed your preparation in about 5 months (December), you are left with one month (January). This last month before the exam will be solely used for revision purposes. Candidates should also do daily revision which will help them memorize better. In the last month, you must revise all the topics that you have covered by now. It is a great opportunity to brush up on all the topics so that in case you have forgotten any topic, you can do it again while there is still time.

### GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering Books for Preparation

When you are collecting your study material, make sure that they are from a renowned author or publication. It is important to prepare from only the best study material. For this purpose, we have mentioned a few books below. Candidates can take help from these books.

Title of the book | Name of the Author/ Publication | Link to buy |

GATE 2021: Instrumentation Engineering Previous Solved Papers | ME Editorial Board | LINK |

Instrumentation Engineering GATE 2021 | Arihant Experts | LINK |

GATE 2021 – Guide – Instrumentation Engineering | GKP | LINK |

## GATE 2021 Preparation FAQs

**Q1. Is there Maths in GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering syllabus?****Ans. **Yes, Mathematics is one of the sections in the GATE 2021 Instrumentation Engineering syllabus. It carries 15% of the total marks of the exam which makes it an important section.

**Q2. How is the negative marking done in GATE 2021?****Ans.** Negative marking will be done for only the MCQs. The marks deducted will be **⅓ **for 1-mark questions and ⅔ for 2-marks questions. You can check the marking scheme given in this article for more information.

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