**GATE 2021 Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus: **The syllabus for Metallurgical Engineering is available on this page. There will be a total of 65 questions in the exam. Out of these, 55 questions will be based on Metallurgical Engineering subject and Mathematics. The remaining 10 questions will be based on the third section, General Aptitude. Candidates must note that the syllabus for all the GATE 2021 subjects is different. For the Metallurgical Engineering syllabus, look from this page.

## GATE 2021 Metallurgical Engineering Syllabus

The syllabus for Metallurgical Engineering is divided into 6 broad sections. These sections are Engineering mathematics, Thermodynamics and Rate Processes, Extractive Metallurgy, Physical Metallurgy, Mechanical metallurgy, and Manufacturing Processes. These sections have further topics under them.

**Section 1: Engineering Mathematics**

**Linear Algebra:** Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

**Calculus:** Limit, Continuity and Differentiability; Partial derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

**Vector Calculus:** Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line, Surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

**Differential Equations:** Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs –Laplace, one dimensional heat and wave equations.

**Probability and Statistics: **Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Analysis of experimental data; linear least squares method.

**Numerical Methods:** Solutions of linear and non-linear (Bisection, Secant, Newton- Raphson methods) algebraic equations; integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multistep methods for differential equations.

**Section 2: Metallurgical Thermodynamics**

**Laws of thermodynamics:** First law – energy conservation, Second law – entropy; Enthalpy, Gibbs and Helmholtz free energy; Maxwell’s relations; Chemical potential; Applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, ideal and regular solutions; Gibbs phase rule, phase equilibria, binary phase diagram and lever rule, free-energy vs. composition diagrams; Equilibrium constant, Activity, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams; Thermodynamics of point defects, surfaces and interfaces, adsorption and segregation phenomena.

**Electrochemistry:** Single electrode potential, Electrochemical cells, Nernst equation, PotentialpH diagrams.

**Section 3: Transport Phenomena and Rate Processes**

**Momentum transfer:** Concept of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, mechanical energy balance equation, flow past plane surfaces and through pipes.

**Heat transfer: **Conduction, Fourier’s Law, 1-D steady state conduction.

**Convection:** Heat transfer coefficient relations for forced convection.**Radiation:** Black body radiation, Stefan-Boltzman Law, Kirchhoff’s Law.**Mass transfer:** Diffusion and Fick’s laws, Mass transfer coefficients.**Dimensional analysis:** Buckingham Pi theorem, Significance of dimensionless numbers.**Basic laws of chemical kinetics: **First order reactions, reaction rate constant, Arrhenius relation, heterogeneous reactions, oxidation kinetics.**Electrochemical kinetics: **Polarization.

**Section 4: Mineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy**

Comminution techniques, Size classification, Flotation, Gravity and other methods of mineral beneficiation; Agglomeration: sintering, pelletizing and briquetting.

Material and Energy balances in metallurgical processes; Principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminum, copper and titanium.

Iron and steel making: Material and heat balance in blast furnace; Structure and properties of slags and molten salts – basicity of slags – sulphide and phosphate capacity of slags; Production of metallurgical coke. Other methods of iron making (COREX, MIDRE)

**Primary steel making:** Basic oxygen furnace, process dynamics, oxidation reactions, electric arc furnace.

**Secondary steel making:** Ladle process – deoxidation, argon stirring, desulphurization, inclusion shape control, principles of degassing methods; Basics of stainless steel manufacturing.

**Continuous Casting:** Fluid flow in the tundish and mould, heat transfer in the mould, segregation, inclusion control.

**Section 5: Physical Metallurgy**

**Chemical Bonding:** Ionic, covalent, metallic, and secondary bonding in materials, Crystal structure of solids – metals and alloys, ionic and covalent solids, and polymers.

**X-ray Diffraction – **Bragg’s law, optical metallography, principles of SEM imaging.

**Crystal Imperfections:** Point, line and surface defects; Coherent, semi-coherent and incoherent interfaces.

**Diffusion in solids:** Diffusion equation, steady state and error function solutions; Exampleshomogenenization and carburization; Kirkendall effect; Uphill diffusion; Atomic models for interstitial and substitutional diffusion; Pipe diffusion and grain boundary diffusion.

**Phase transformation: **Driving force, Homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation, growth Kinetics Solidification in isomorphous, eutectic and peritectic systems, cast structures and macrosegregation, dendritic solidification and constitutional supercooling, coring and microsegregation.

**Solid state transformations: **Precipitation, spinoidal decomposition, ordering, massive transformation, discontinuous precipitation, eutectoid transformation, diffusionless transformations; Precipitate coarsening, Gibbs-Thomson effect.

Principles of heat treatment of steels, TTT and CCT diagrams; Surface hardening treatments; Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; Heat treatment of cast iron and aluminium alloys.

Electronic, magnetic and optical properties of materials. Basic forms of corrosion and its prevention.

**Section 6: Mechanical Metallurgy**

Strain tensor and stress tensor, Representation by Mohr’s circle, elasticity, stiffness and compliance tensor, Yield criteria, Plastic deformation by slip and twinning.

**Dislocation theory:** Edge, screw and mixed dislocations, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations; Partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions.

**Strengthening mechanisms:** Work/strain hardening, strengthening due to grain boundaries, solid solution, precipitation and dispersion.

Fracture behaviour, Griffith theory, linear elastic fracture mechanics, fracture toughness, fractography, ductile to brittle transition.

**Fatigue: **Cyclic stress strain behaviour – low and high cycle fatigue, crack growth

Mechanisms of high temperature deformation and failure; creep and stress rupture, stress exponent and activation energy.

**Section 7: Manufacturing Processes**

**Metal casting:** Mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, casting practices, casting defects.

**Hot, warm and cold working of metals:** Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming.

**Metal joining:** Principles of soldering, brazing and welding, welding metallurgy, defects in welded joints in steels and aluminum alloys.

**Powder metallurgy: **production of powders, compaction and sintering.

**Non-destructive Testing (NDT):** Dye-penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle inspection methods.

### GATE 2021 General Aptitude Syllabus

The General Aptitude section is common in all papers of GATE 2021. Candidates must note that the syllabus for this section also remains the same in all the papers. The section is divided into two parts – Verbal Ability and Numerical Ability. Candidates will have to answer a total of 10 questions in this section. 5 of these questions are of 1-mark each and the other 5 questions are of 2-marks each. Candidates can check the syllabus for the General Aptitude section below.

Verbal Ability | Numerical Ability |

English grammar, sentence completion, instructions, verbal analogies, word groups, critical reasoning, verbal deduction. | Numerical computation, numerical reasoning, numerical estimation, data interpretation. |

### GATE 2021 MT Mock Tests

Your GATE 2021 Preparation should be done by practicing a lot of mock tests. One of the reasons why solving mocks is important is because it helps you in identifying your weak areas and also improve them. Without mock tests, you will not be able to secure good marks in the exam.

### GATE 2021 Metallurgical Engineering Exam Pattern

Candidates must go through the exam pattern along with the marking scheme of the exam. This will help them in getting familiar with the pattern of the questions in the exam and how the marking is done in the exam. Candidates should be aware of the sections that will be coming in the exam too. Candidate can go through the exam pattern and the marking scheme of GATE 2021 below.

Section | Total Marks |

GA | 15% of the total marks |

Mathematics | 15% of the total marks |

ME – Subject-Based | 70% of the total marks |

GATE 2021 is a Computer Based Test (CBT) that is conducted online. Candidates will get 3 hours to complete GATE 2021. Two types of questions will be asked in the exam, MCQs and NATs. A total of 3 sections will be there in the exam – General Aptitude, Mathematics and Subject-based. A total of 65 questions will be asked for a total of 100 marks. There will be negative marking for the MCQs in the exam.

**Marking scheme**

Type of question | Negative marking for wrong answer | Marking for correct answer |

MCQs | ⅓ for 1 mark questions⅔ for 2 marks questions | 1 or 2 marks |

NATs | No negative marking | 1 or 2 marks |

### How to Prepare for GATE Metallurgical Engineering?

Your preparation depends on your strategy. If it is not well thought then you might lose marks in the exam. Your strategy should tackle your preparation in such a way that you are able to cover all the topics. Your strategy should also divide topics from easy to difficult, less to more weightage, or less to more important. Then prepare for subjects according to your comfort. The last month should be kept for revision. Candidates can look for the tips that we have mentioned below for their preparation.

**Exam Syllabus**

Candidates must go through the syllabus thoroughly. They should be familiar with each topic in the syllabus. Divide the topics and prepare them accordingly. You should also go through the exam pattern and the marking scheme of the exam. Through the exam pattern, you will know what sections you have to prepare for. All three – the exam pattern, marking scheme and the syllabus are important in the preparation of the GATE 2021 exam and you should know them well.

**Basic concepts**

The understanding of basic concepts is really important. You should have concept clarity in all the topics. This will help you in preparing better for the exam. Don’t move on to any other topic unless you are through with the topics you have been preparing. Understand them well and keep practicing them simultaneously. If you gain concept clarity you will be able to solve even the difficult questions which will make it easier for you to score in the exam.

**Preparation notes**

You must make it a habit to make notes during your preparation. Notes should be made for every single topic in your GATE 2021 syllabus. The point of making the notes is to understand the topic first and then write it by hand. If you have understood the concept, only then will you be able to create notes. This technique helps in memorizing the topics well. Also, these notes will come in handy when you are revising the entire syllabus.

**Solve papers**

Your preparation should be done through solving as many question papers as you can. Start with your weekly and monthly mock tests. It will help you in keeping track of your weekly and monthly progress. As you near the last two months, start taking full-length mocks. Also, solve at least 10-15 last years’ question papers. This will help you in getting familiar with the trend of the questions that have been followed over the past few years.

**Revision**

As you start getting near the last month, start revising the syllabus. Take the help of the notes that you made during the preparation. Revision is an important step or you will forget what you have learned so far. Also, do daily revision, this way you will remember better.

### Books for GATE MT Preparation

Candidates are suggested to prepare for GATE 2021 from the best material only. The sign for good material is the renowned author or the publication of that material. Your material should be limited and of good quality.

Title of the book | Name of the Author/ Publication | Link to buy |

GATE 2021 – Metallurgical Engineering – Guide | GKP | LINK |

Metallurgical Engineering Solved Papers GATE 2021 | Amritansh Frank | LINK |

GATE 2021 – Solved Papers – Metallurgical Engineering | GKP | LINK |

### GATE 2021 Preparation FAQs

**Q1. What is the weightage of the Mathematics section in the GATE 2021 (MT)?****Ans.** The Mathematics section is 15% of the total marks in GATE 2021 Metallurgical Engineering.

**Q2. What is the best book (with solved papers) for the GATE 2021 Metallurgical Engineering preparation?****Ans. **You can refer to the GATE 2021 – Solved Papers – Metallurgical Engineering, GKP. For more study material, check Books for preparation in the above article.

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