**GATE 2021 Physics Syllabus: **The syllabus for Physics paper in GATE 2021 is accessible on this page. Candidates must note that the syllabus of all the subjects of the exam are different and are available on the official website of GATE 2021. There will be 65 questions in the exam out of which, 55 questions will be based on the Physics subject and the remaining 10 questions will be based on the General Aptitude section. The GA section remains the same in all the papers. Candidates can check the syllabus for Physics subject from this page.

Contents

## GATE 2021 Physics Syllabus

In the syllabus for Physics subject, there are 8 broad sections. These sections further consist of several topics and subtopics. These sections are Mathematical Physics, Classical Mechanics, Electromagnetic Theory, Quantum Mechanics, Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Solid State Physics & Electronics, and Nuclear & Particle Physics.

**Section 1: Mathematical Physics**

**Vector calculus: **linear vector space: basis, orthogonality and completeness; matrices; similarity transformations, diagonalization, eigenvalues and eigenvectors; linear differential equations: second order linear differential equations and solutions involving special functions; complex analysis: Cauchy-Riemann conditions, Cauchy’s theorem, singularities, residue theorem and applications; Laplace transform, Fourier analysis; elementary ideas about tensors: covariant and contravariant tensors.

**Section 2: Classical Mechanics**

**Lagrangian formulation:** D’Alembert’s principle, Euler-Lagrange equation, Hamilton’s principle, calculus of variations; symmetry and conservation laws; central force motion: Kepler problem and Rutherford scattering; small oscillations: coupled oscillations and normal modes; rigid body dynamics: interia tensor, orthogonal transformations, Euler angles, Torque free motion of asymmetric top; Hamiltonian and Hamilton’s equations of motion; Liouville’s theorem; canonical transformations: action-angle variables, Poisson brackets, Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

**Special theory of relativity:** Lorentz transformations, relativistic kinematics, mass-energy equivalence.

**Section 3: Electromagnetic Theory**

Solutions of electrostatic and magnetostatic problems including boundary value problems; method of images; separation of variables; dielectrics and conductors; magnetic materials; multipole expansion; Maxwell’s equations; scalar and vector potentials; Coulomb and Lorentz gauges; electromagnetic waves in free space, non-conducting and conducting media; reflection and transmission at normal and oblique incidences; polarization of electromagnetic waves; Poynting vector, Poynting theorem, energy and momentum of electromagnetic waves; radiation from a moving charge.

**Section 4: Quantum Mechanics**

Postulates of quantum mechanics; uncertainty principle; Schrodinger equation; Dirac Bra-Ket notation, linear vectors and operators in Hilbert space; one dimensional potentials: step potential, finite rectangular well, tunneling from a potential barrier, particle in a box, harmonic oscillator; two and three dimensional systems: concept of degeneracy; hydrogen atom; angular momentum and spin; addition of angular momenta; variational method and WKB approximation, time independent perturbation theory; elementary scattering theory, Born approximation; symmetries in quantum mechanical systems.

**Section 5: Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics**

Laws of thermodynamics; macrostates and microstates; phase space; ensembles; partition function, free energy, calculation of thermodynamic quantities; classical and quantum statistics; degenerate Fermi gas; black body radiation and Planck’s distribution law; Bose-Einstein condensation; first and second-order phase transitions, phase equilibria, critical point.

**Section 6: Atomic and Molecular Physics**

Spectra of one-and many-electron atoms; spin-orbit interaction: LS and jj couplings; fine and hyperfine structures; Zeeman and Stark effects; electric dipole transitions and selection rules; rotational and vibrational spectra of diatomic molecules; electronic transitions in diatomic molecules, Franck-Condon principle; Raman effect; EPR, NMR, ESR, X-ray spectra; lasers: Einstein coefficients, population inversion, two and three level systems.

**Section 7: Solid State Physics**

Elements of crystallography; diffraction methods for structure determination; bonding in solids; lattice vibrations and thermal properties of solids; free electron theory; band theory of solids: nearly free electron and tight binding models; metals, semiconductors and insulators; conductivity, mobility and effective mass; Optical properties of solids; Kramer’s-Kronig relation, intra- and inter-band transitions; dielectric properties of solid; dielectric function, polarizability, ferroelectricity; magnetic properties of solids; dia, para, ferro, antiferro and ferri-magnetism, domains and magnetic anisotropy; superconductivity: Type-I and Type II superconductors, Meissner effect, London equation, BCS Theory, flux quantization.

**Section 8: Electronics**

**Semiconductors in equilibrium: **electron and hole statistics in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; metal-semiconductor junctions; Ohmic and rectifying contacts; PN diodes, bipolar junction transistors, field effect transistors; negative and positive feedback circuits; oscillators, operational amplifiers, active filters; basics of digital logic circuits, combinational and sequential circuits, flip-flops, timers, counters, registers, A/D and D/A conversion.

**Section 9: Nuclear and Particle Physics**

Nuclear radii and charge distributions, nuclear binding energy, electric and magnetic moments; semi-empirical mass formula; nuclear models; liquid drop model, nuclear shell model; nuclear force and two nucleon problem; alpha decay, beta-decay, electromagnetic transitions in nuclei; Rutherford scattering, nuclear reactions, conservation laws; fission and fusion; particle accelerators and detectors; elementary particles; photons, baryons, mesons and leptons; quark model; conservation laws, isospin symmetry, charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal invariance.

### GATE 2021 General Aptitude Syllabus

Candidates must note that the General Aptitude section is common in all the papers of GATE 2021. The syllabus of this also remains the same in all the papers. The General Aptitude section is divided into 2 – Verbal Ability and Numerical Ability. Candidates will have to answer a total of 10 questions in this section. Out of these 10 sections, 5 questions will be carrying 1-mark each and the remaining 5 questions will be carrying 2-mark each. The type of questions asked in this section will be Multiple Choice Questions. The syllabus for this section is given below.

**Verbal Ability- **English grammar, Sentence completion, Instructions, Verbal analogies, Word groups, Critical Reasoning, and Verbal deduction. **Numerical Ability- **Numerical computation, Numerical reasoning, Numerical estimation, and Data interpretation.

## GATE 2021PH Mock Tests

Your GATE 2021 preparation should be done through solving as many mock tests as you can. This will help you in identifying your weak areas that need to be improved.

### GATE 2021 Physics Exam Pattern

The first step in your GATE 2021 preparation will be going through the exam pattern and the marking scheme of the exam. You must be aware of the exam so that they know what they are preparing for. Knowledge about the exam related information will increase your chances of scoring good marks in the exam. For GATE 2021 Exam Pattern and Marking Scheme, you can check below.

Section | Distribution of Marks | Total Marks | Types of questions |

GA | 5 questions of 1 mark each 5 questions of 2 marks each | 15 marks | MCQs |

PH- Subject-Based | 25 questions of 1 mark each 30 questions of 2 marks each | 85 marks | MCQs and NATs |

**Mode:** Online, Computer Based Test (CBT)

**Duration:** 3 hours

**Types of questions:** MCQs and NATs (Numerical Answer Type)

**No./Name of sections:** 2 Sections – General Aptitude and Subject based

**No. of questions:** 65 questions

**Total marks:** 100 marks

**Negative marking:** Only for the MCQs

**Marking scheme**

Type of question | Negative marking for wrong answer | Marking for correct answer |

MCQs | ⅓ for 1 mark questions⅔ for 2 marks questions | 1 or 2 marks |

NATs | No negative marking | 1 or 2 marks |

### How to Prepare for GATE Physics?

We have already discussed your first step in preparing for GATE 2021 that is going through the exam pattern, marking scheme, and syllabus of the exam. Your next step should be collecting all the relevant study material and start your preparation. All these steps should be taken in the first month of your preparation. Besides these, there are a few things that you should keep in you mind throughout your preparation. We have suggested a few tips that can follow which will surely help you prepare well and bring impressive results.

**Standard books**

You should do a standard preparation. Standard preparation is your ideal preparation that is done through the standard books. The language used in such books is easy to understand for the students. The explanation of the concepts is done in such a manner that it is easier to learn them. You should avoid preparing from a lot of books. This will only confuse you more. Stick to the standard books and prepare with true hard work.

**Test Papers**

During the preparation, solve a variety of test papers such as the mock tests. Take weekly and monthly mock tests. Once you have completed the exam syllabus and are close to the last month of preparation, start taking the full-length mock tests. It will help you in analyzing your preparation well. You can also join some online test series such as the Brainstorm Achievers online test series. It will help you in keeping track of your preparation.

**Aim for time management and accuracy **

If we have to narrow down two important factors in GATE 2021, it will be your speed and accuracy. Your time management skills will come in handy in this very exam. If you think you have to work on your time management skills, do it during your preparations. Mock tests and online series are the best methods to improve your speed and accuracy. You see, both of them are interrelated so if you improve your speed, your accuracy will improve on its own.

**Practice online calculator**

One of the areas where the candidates lose marks is the online calculator. They usually forget to practice it or just take it for granted. It will be better if you prepare online calculator before taking the exam. This will help you a lot during the exam and you will also save time if you are prepared in advance.

**Self Motivation**

Self-motivation is like food that you require daily. Try to be in good spirits and prepare for the exam with optimism. Stay clear of all the distractions and negative vibes that make you doubt your potential. Just keep in mind that it is okay if you don’t clear the exam in the first attempt.

### Books for GATE PH Preparation

When you are picking your study material make sure that it is of good quality. Your study material affects your preparation and ultimately your results. Always go for books from famous authors or publications. We have suggested a few such books for you below.

Title of the book | Name of the Author/ Publication | Link to buy |

Chapterwise Solved Papers Physics GATE 2021 | Vijay Kumar | LINK |

GATE 2021 – Guide – Physics | GKP | LINK |

GATE 2021- Chapter-Wise Previous Solved Papers – 20 Years’ Solved Papers – Physics | GKP | LINK |

### GATE 2021 PH Preparation FAQs

**Q1. How many sections are there in the GATE 2021 Physics subject?**

Ans. There are only two sections in the GATE 2021 Physics paper – General Aptitude section and Physics-based section.

**Q2. Is there a negative marking in the GATE 2021?**

Ans. Yes, there is negative marking in the GATE 2021 but only for the Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs).

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