AP PGECET Syllabus for various courses in Post Graduate is available here. Candidates who are wising to take admission in AP PGECET can check the syllabus in detail according to their need. Get complete details regarding AP PGECET 2019 Syllabus from here.

## AP PGECET 2019 Syllabus

Detailed Syllabus for the AP PGECET is available here. Candidates are requested to view all the topics covered under the syllabus. The topics covered under the syllabus are designed by the AP.

### Aerospace Engineering (AS)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, limit, continuity and differentiability, mean value theorems, evaluation of definite and improper integrals, partial derivatives, total derivative, maxima and minima, gradient, divergence and curl, vector identities, directional derivatives, line, surface and volume integrals. Theorems of Stokes, Gauss and Green

Differential Calculus: First order linear and nonlinear equations; higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy and Euler equations, and initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms. Partial differential equations and separation of variables methods.

Numerical methods: Numerical solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, integration by trapezoidal and Simpson rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Flight Mechanics**

Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft. Airplane (fixed wing aircraft) configuration and various parts.

Airplane performance: Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; Primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turn-bank indicator. Drag polar; take off and landing; steady climb & descent,-absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise climb, endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, V-n diagram; Winds: head, tail & cross winds

Static stability: Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick fixed & free stability, horizontal tail position and size; directional stability, vertical tail position and size; dihedral stability. Wing dihedral, sweep & position; hinge moments, stick forces.

Dynamic stability: Euler angles; Equations of motion; aerodynamic forces and moments, stability & control derivatives; decoupling of longitudinal and lat-directional dynamics; longitudinal modes; lateral-directional modes.

**Space Dynamics**

Central force motion, determination of trajectory and orbital period in simple cases. Orbit transfer, in-plane and out-of-plane. Elements of rocket motor performance.

**Aerodynamics**

Basic Fluid Mechanics: Incompressible irrotational flow, Helmholtz and Kelvin theorem, singularities and superposition, viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate.

Airfoils and wings: Classification of airfoils, aerodynamic characteristics, high lift devices, Kutta Joukowski theorem; lift generation; thin airfoil theory; wing theory; induced drag; qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings.

Viscous Flows: Flow separation, introduction to turbulence, transition, structure of a turbulent boundary layer.

Compressible Flows: Dynamics and Thermodynamics of I-D flow, isentropic flow, normal shock, oblique shock, Prandtl-Meyer flow, flow in nozzles and diffusers, inviscid flow in a c-d nozzle, flow in diffusers. Subsonic and supersonic airfoils, compressibility effects on lift and drag, critical and drag divergence Mach number, wave drag.

Wind Tunnel Testing: Measurement and visualisation techniques.

**Structures**

Stress and Strain: Equations of equilibrium, constitutive law, strain-displacement relationship, compatibility equations, plane stress and strain, Airy’s stress function.

Flight Vehicle Structures: Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials, torsion, bending and flexural shear. Flexural shear flow in thin-walled sections. Buckling. Failure theories. Loads on aircraft.

Structural Dynamics: Free and forced vibration of discrete systems. Damping and resonance. Dynamics of continuous systems.

Propulsion Thermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine engines thrust and thrust augmentation.

Turbo machinery: Axial compressors and turbines, centrifugal pumps and compressors.

Aerothermodynamics of non rotating propulsion components: Intakes, combustor and nozzle. Thermodynamics of ramjets and scramjets. Elements of rocket propulsion.

### Bio Technology (BT)

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier series.

Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Probability and Sampling Theorem, Conditional Probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.

Biotechnology Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.vavilable

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction;

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.

Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exopolysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.

Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.

Plant and Animal Biotechnology: Special features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies

Characteristics of animal cells: Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.

Immunology: The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD; RFLP; Sitedirected mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.

Bioinformatics: Major Bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (bimolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA micro arrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force fields).

### Chemical Engineering (CH)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector densities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series, Residue theorem.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Chemical Engineering**

Process Calculations and Thermodynamics: Laws of conservation of mass and energy; use of tie components; recycle, bypass and purge calculations; degree of freedom analysis. First and Second laws of thermodynamics. First law application to close and open systems. Second law and Entropy Thermodynamic properties of pure substances: equation of state and departure function, properties of mixtures: partial molar properties, fugacity,

excess properties and activity coefficients; phase equilibria: predicting VLE of systems; chemical reaction equilibria.

Fluid Mechanics and Mechanical Operations: Fluid statics, Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, Bernoulli equation, Macroscopic friction factors, energy balance, dimensional analysis, shell balances, flow through pipeline systems, flow meters, pumps and compressors, packed and fluidized beds, elementary boundary layer theory, size reduction and size separation; free and hindered settling; centrifuge and cyclones; thickening and classification, filtration, mixing and agitation; conveying of solids.

Heat Transfer: Conduction, convection and radiation, heat transfer coefficients, steady and unsteady heat conduction, boiling, condensation and evaporation; types of heat exchangers and evaporators and their design. Mass Transfer: Fick’s laws, molecular diffusion in fluids, mass transfer coefficients, film, penetration and surface renewal theories; momentum, heat and mass transfer analogies; stage wise and continuous contacting and stage efficiencies; HTU & NTU concepts design and operation of equipment for distillation, absorption, leaching, liquidliquid extraction, drying, humidification, dehumidification and adsorption.

Chemical Reaction Engineering: Theories of reaction rates; kinetics of homogeneous reactions, interpretation of kinetic data, single and multiple reactions in ideal reactors, non-ideal reactors; residence time distribution, single parameter model; non-isothermal reactors; kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions; diffusion effects in catalysis. Instrumentation and Process Control: Measurement of process variables; sensors, transducers and their dynamics, transfer functions and dynamic responses of simple systems, process reaction curve, controller modes (P, PI, and PID); control valves; analysis of closed loop systems including stability, frequency response and controller tuning, cascade, feed forward control.

Plant Design and Economics: Process design and sizing of chemical engineering equipment such as compressors, heat exchangers, multistage contactors; principles of process economics and cost estimation including total annualized cost, cost indexes, rate of return, payback period, discounted cash flow, optimization in design.

Chemical Technology: Inorganic chemical industries; sulfuric acid, NaOH, fertilizers (Ammonia, Urea, SSP and TSP); natural products industries (Pulp and Paper, Sugar, Oil, and Fats); petroleum refining and petrochemicals; polymerization industries; polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC and polyester synthetic fibers.

### Civil Engineering (CE)

Engineering Mathematics Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors. Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

Structural Engineering Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress transformation, Mohr’s circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

Structural Analysis: Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.

Concrete Structures: Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

Steel Structures: Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases. Connections-simple and eccentric, beam’column connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

Geotechnical Engineering & Environmental Engineering Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil classification, three-phase system, fundamental definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability & seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.

Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopes infinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types-foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations-bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands & clays. Deep foundations pile types, dynamic & static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands & clays, negative skin friction.

Water Resources and Transportation Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics: Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli’s equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines.

Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.

Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways. Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.

Water requirements: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

Highway Planning: Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements.

Traffic Engineering: Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.

Surveying: Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

### Computer Science & Information Technology (CS)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Probability and Statistics: Probability, Conditional Probability; Probability Density Function, Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation; Random Variables; Distributions; uniform, normal, exponential, Poisson, Binomial.

Set Theory & Algebra: Sets; Relations; Functions; Groups; Partial Orders; Lattice; Boolean Algebra.

Linear Algebra: Algebra of matrices, determinants, systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Numerical Methods: LU decomposition for systems of linear equations; numerical solutions of non-linear algebraic equations by Secant, Bisection and Newton-Raphson Methods; Numerical integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rules.

Calculus: Limit, Continuity & differentiability, Mean value Theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, evaluation of definite & improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivatives, maxima & minima.

**Computer Science and Information Technology**

Combinatorics: Permutations; Combinations; Counting; Summation; generating functions; recurrence relations; asymptotic.

Graph Theory: Connectivity; spanning trees; Cut vertices & edges; covering; matching; independent sets; Colouring; Planarity; Isomorphism.

Mathematical Logic: Propositional Logic; First Order Logic.

Digital Logic: Logic functions, Minimization, Design and synthesis of combinational and sequential circuits; Number representation and computer arithmetic (fixed and floating point).

Computer Organization and Architecture: Machine instructions and addressing modes, ALU and data-path, CPU control design, Memory interface, I/O interface (Interrupt and DMA mode), Instruction pipelining, Cache and main memory, Secondary storage.

Programming and Data Structures: Programming in C; Functions, Recursion, Parameter passing, Scope, Binding; Abstract data types, Arrays, Stacks, Queues, Linked Lists, Trees, Binary search trees, Binary heaps.

Algorithms: Analysis, Asymptotic notation, Notions of space and time complexity, Worst and average case analysis; Design: Greedy approach, Dynamic programming, Divide-and conquer; Tree and graph traversals, Connected components, Spanning trees, Shortest paths; Hashing, Sorting, Searching. Asymptotic analysis (best, worst, average cases) of time and space, upper and lower bounds, Basic concepts of complexity classes P, NP, NPhard, NP-complete.

Theory of Computation: Regular languages and finite automata, Context free languages and Push-down automata, Recursively enumerable sets and Turing machines, Undecidability.

Compiler Design: Lexical analysis, Parsing, Syntax directed translation, Runtime environments, Intermediate and target code generation, Basics of code optimization.

Operating System: Processes, Threads, Inter-process communication, Concurrency, Synchronization, Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O systems, Protection and security.

Databases: ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design (integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential files, indexing, B and B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control.

Information Systems and Software Engineering: information gathering, requirement and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the project, design, coding, testing, implementation, maintenance.

Computer Networks: ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control techniques, Routing algorithms, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IP(v4), Application layer protocols (icmp, dns, smtp, pop, ftp, http); Basic concepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and routers. Network security basic concepts of public key and private key cryptography, digital signature, firewalls.

Web technologies: HTML, XML, basic concepts of client-server computing.

### Electronics & Communication Engineering (EC)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Probability and Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Electronics and Communication Engineering**

Networks: Network graphs: matrices associated with graphs; incidence, fundamental cut set and fundamental circuit matrices. Solution methods: nodal and mesh analysis. Network theorems: superposition, Thevenin and Norton’s maximum power transfer, Wye-Delta transformation. Steady state sinusoidal analysis using phasors. Linear constant coefficient differential equations; time domain analysis of simple RLC circuits, Solution of network equations using Laplace transform: frequency domain analysis of RLC circuits. 2-port network parameters: driving point and transfer functions. State equations for networks.

Electronic Devices: Energy bands in silicon, intrinsic and extrinsic silicon. Carrier transport in silicon: diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers. p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, PIN and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASERs. Device technology: integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation,

photolithography, n-tub, p-tub and twin-tub CMOS process.

Analog Circuits: Small Signal Equivalent circuits of diodes, BJTs, MOSFETs and analog CMOS. Simple diode circuits, clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability of transistor and FET amplifiers. Amplifiers: singleand multi-stage, differential and operational, feedback, and power. Frequency response of amplifiers. Simple opamp circuits. Filters. Sinusoidal oscillators; criterion for oscillation; single-transistor and op-amp configurations.

Function generators and wave-shaping circuits, 555 Timers. Power supplies.

Digital circuits: Boolean algebra, minimization of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinatorial circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers, decoders, PROMs and PLAs. Sequential circuits: latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs, DACs. Semiconductor memories. Microprocessor (8085): architecture, programming, memory and I/O interfacing.

Signals and Systems: Definitions and properties of Laplace transform. Continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier series, continuous-time and discrete-time Fourier Transform, DFT and FFT, z-transform. Sampling theorem. Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) Systems: definitions and properties; causality, stability, impulse response, convolution, poles and zeros, parallel and cascade structure, frequency response, group delay, phase delay. Signal transmission through LTI systems.

Control Systems: Basic control system components; block diagrammatic description, reduction of block diagrams. Open loop and closed loop (feedback) systems and stability analysis of these systems. Signal flow graphs and their use in determining transfer functions of systems; transient and steady state analysis of LTI control systems and frequency response. Tools and techniques for LTI control system analysis: root loci, Routh-Hurwitz criterion, Bode and Nyquist plots. Control system compensators: elements of lead and lag compensation, elements of ProportionalIntegral-Derivative

(PID) control. State variable representation and solution of state equation of LTI control systems.

Communications: Deterministic and Random signals, types of noise, Autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog communication systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of these operations, superheterodyne receivers; elements of hardware, realizations of analog communication systems; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) for low noise conditions. Fundamentals of information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems: pulse code modulation (PCM), differential pulse code modulation (DPCM), digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers, bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA, FDMA and CDMA and GSM.

Electromagnetics: Elements of vector calculus: divergence and curl; Gauss’ and Stokes’ theorems, Maxwell’s equations: differential and integral forms. Wave equation, Poynting vector. Plane waves: propagation through various media; reflection and refraction; phase and group velocity; skin depth. Transmission lines: characteristic impedance; impedance transformation; Smith chart; impedance matching; S parameters, pulse excitation.

Waveguides: modes in rectangular waveguides; boundary conditions; cut-off frequencies; dispersion relations. Basics of propagation in dielectric waveguide and optical fibers. Basics of Antennas: Dipole antennas; radiation pattern; antenna gain

### Geo Engineering & Geo Informatics (GG)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

**Geo-Engineering**

Continents. Earth composition. Earth – Orbit,

Oceans – Depth, Bottom, Relief

Rocks, Kinds of rocks, minerals & physical properties of minerals.

Surveying methods: Topographic surveying, Theodolite applications, topographic sheets, aerial photo formats

Maps: map projections, cartography

Physical principles of remote sensing, electromagnetic spectrum

GIS concepts and applications

Study of rain fall, estimation of run-off and evapotranspiration, water table

Environment – meaning, scope, components Environments.

Soils-texture, strengths, porosity and permeability

Programming in C: variables, data types, expressions, control structures, arrays, functions, pointers, structures.

### Mechanical Engineering (ME)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations, Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Applied Mechanics and Design**

Engineering Mechanics: Free body diagrams and equilibrium; trusses and frames; virtual work; kinematics and dynamics of particles and of rigid bodies in plane motion, including impulse and momentum (linear and angular) and energy formulations; impact.

Strength of Materials: Stress and strain, stress-strain relationship and elastic constants, Mohr’s circle for plane stress and plane strain, thin cylinders; shear force and bending moment diagrams; bending and shear stresses; deflection of beams; torsion of circular shafts; Euler’s theory of columns; strain energy methods; thermal stresses.

Theory of Machines: Displacement, velocity and acceleration analysis of plane mechanisms; dynamic analysis of slider-crank mechanism; gear trains; flywheels.

Vibrations: Free and forced vibration of single degree of freedom systems; effect of damping; vibration isolation; resonance, critical speeds of shafts.

Design: Design for static and dynamic loading; failure theories; fatigue strength and the S-N diagram; principles of the design of machine elements such as bolted, riveted and welded joints, shafts, spur gears, rolling and sliding contact bearings, brakes and clutches.

**Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences**

Fluid Mechanics: Fluid properties; fluid statics, manometry, buoyancy; control-volume analysis of mass, momentum and energy; fluid acceleration; differential equations of continuity and momentum; Bernoulli’s equation; viscous flow of incompressible fluids; boundary layer; elementary turbulent flow; flow through pipes, head losses in pipes, bends etc.

Heat-Transfer: Modes of heat transfer; one dimensional heat conduction, resistance concept, electrical analogy, unsteady heat conduction, fins; dimensionless parameters in free and forced convective heat transfer, various correlations for heat transfer in flow over flat plates and through pipes; thermal boundary layer; effect of turbulence; radiative heat transfer, black and grey surfaces, shape factors, network analysis; heat exchanger

performance, LMTD and NTU methods.

Thermodynamics: Zeroth, First and Second laws of thermodynamics; thermodynamic system and processes; Carnot cycle. Irreversibility and availability; behaviour of ideal and real gases, properties of pure substances, calculation of work and heat in ideal processes; analysis of thermodynamic cycles related to energy conversion.

Applications: Power Engineering: Steam Tables, Rankine, Brayton cycles with regeneration and reheat. I.C. Engines: air-standard Otto, Diesel cycles. Refrigeration and air-conditioning: Vapour refrigeration cycle, heat pumps, gas refrigeration, Reverse Brayton cycle; moist air: psychrometric chart, basic psychrometric processes.

Turbomachinery: Peltonwheel, Francis and Kaplan turbines – impulse and reaction principles, velocity diagrams.

**Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering**

Engineering Materials: Structure and properties of engineering materials, heat treatment, stress- strain diagrams for engineering materials.

Metal Casting: Design of patterns, moulds and cores; solidification and cooling; riser and gating design, design considerations.

Forming: Plastic deformation and yield criteria; fundamentals of hot and cold working processes; load estimation for bulk (forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing) and sheet (shearing, deep drawing, bending) metal forming processes; principles of powder metallurgy.

Joining: Physics of welding, brazing and soldering; adhesive bonding; design considerations in welding.

Machining and Machine Tool Operations: Mechanics of machining, single and multi-point cutting tools, tool geometry and materials, tool life and wear; economics of machining; principles of non-traditional machining processes; principles of work holding, principles of design of jigs and fixtures

Metrology and Inspection: Limits, fits and tolerances; linear and angular measurements; comparators; gauge design; inter-ferometry; form and finish measurement; alignment and testing methods; tolerance analysis in manufacturing and assembly.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing: Basic concepts of CAD/CAM and their integration tools. Production Planning and Control: Forecasting models, aggregate production planning, scheduling, materials requirement planning.

Inventory Control: Deterministic and probabilistic models; safety stock inventory control systems.

Operations Research: Linear programming, simplex and duplex method, transportation, assignment, network flow models, simple queuing models, PERT and CPM.

### Nano Technology (NT)

**Engineering Mechanics & Strength of Materials**

Concurrent forces in a plane and its equilibrium. Centroids of composite plane figures. General case of forces in a plane. Moment of inertia of plane figures. Parallel axis theorem. Polar MI. Concept mass MI. Rectilinear translation. Kinematics. Principal of dynamics Motion of a particle under constant force. Force proportional to displacement and free vibrations (SHM). D’ Albert’s principle. Momentum. Impulse work and energy. Rotation of a rigid body about a fixed axis kinematics. Equation of motion of a rigid body about a fixed axis. Rotation under constant moment. Torsional vibration. Simple stresses and strains. Stresses on inclined plane. 2 -Dimensional stress systems. Principal stress and principal planes. Mohr’s circle. Shearing force and bending moment. Types of loads. Types of Supports. SF and BM diagrams for formula. Bending stresses in the above types of beams with rectangular and circulars sections. Torsion of circular shafts. Determination of shear stress.

**Fluid Mechanics and Heat transfer**

Classification of flows – Steady, Unsteady, Uniform, Non-uniform, Laminar, Turbulent, Rotational, Irrotational flows, Vorticity, and circulation-Conservation of mass-Equation of continuity, Conservation of momentum-Euler’s equation, Conservation of energy – Bernoulli’s equation and its applications. One-dimensional Viscous flow. Couette flow- Plane couetee flow. Two dimensional Viscous Flow; Navier stokes equations and solutions. Laminar Boundary Layer. Momentum integral equation-Flow over a flat plate-Displacement thickness, Momentum thickness and energy thickness. Turbulent Boundary Layer. Laminar-Turbulent transition-momentum equations and Reynold’s stresses. Dimensional Analysis and Modeling Similitude. Fundamental and derived dimensions – Dimensionless groups – Buckingham Theorem – Rayleigh method . Elements of heat transmission. steady state conduction, convection and radiation. Furnaces. Classification o f furnaces and their use in metallurgical industries. Heat utilization in furnaces, available heat, factors affecting it. Heat losses in furnaces and furnace efficiency. Heat balance and sankey diagrams. Principles of waste heat recovery. Recuperators and regenerators. Types and applicability. AMTD and LMTD in recuperators. Protective atmosphere and their applications Salt bath furnaces.

**Elements of Material Science**

Introduction, classification of materials, Space lattice and unit cells, crystal systems. Indices for planes and directions. Structures of common metallic materials. Crystal defects: point, Line and surface defects. Dislocations, types, Burgers’ Vector, Dislocation movement by climb and cross slip. Dislocation sources, Dislocation point – defect interaction and pileups. Plastic deformation of single crystals. Deformation by slip , CRSS for slip.

Deformation of single crystal. Deformation by twinning. Stacking faults, Ho t working, cold working. Recovery, recrystallization and grain growth. Hall- Petch equation. Tensile stress- strain diagrams, proof stress, yield stress, modulus of elasticity. Typical stress-strain diagrams for mild steel cast iron and aluminum alloy.

**Metallurgical Thermodynamics**

Introduction – Basic concepts in thermodynamics. Objectives and limitations of classical thermodynamics. Zeroth law of thermodynamics. First Law of Thermodynamics-Forms of Energy, Heat and Work, Joules Experiments, Conservation o f Energy, Concept of Maximum Work, Isothermal Expansion, Reversible, Adiabatic Expansion, Constant Pressure Processes, Constant Volume Processes, Enthalpy. Second Law of Thermodynamics -Efficiency of cyclic process. Carnot cycle. Entropy. Thermodynamic equation of state. Statistical Entropy. Physical Meaning of Entropy, Boltzman Equation, Mixing Entropy, Stirling’s Approximation Auxiliary Functions. Fundamental Equations of State, Max well Relationships, Other Thermodynamic Relations, Chemical Potential, GibbsHelmholtz Equation, Criteria of Equilibria. Third law of Thermodynamics, Heat Capacity and Entropy Changes. Sensible Heats, Transformation Heats, Reaction Heats, Adiabatic Flame Temperatures, Heat Balances. Phase Equilibria in One Component Systems, Clausius-Claperyon Equation, Heats of Vaporization From Vapor Pressure Data, Shift in Transformation, Temperature with Pressure, Fugacity, activity and equilibrium constant. Vant Hoff’s isotherm. Ellingham diagrams and application.

**Advanced Material science**

Electrical and Electronic properties of materials, Electronic conductivity, free electron theory and band theory of solids. Intrinsic semi-conductors. Super conductivity. Magnetic properties, Dia, para, ferro, ferri magnetism. Soft and hard magnetic materials and applications. Optical properties of materials. Refractive index, absorption emission of light, optical fibers. Opto-electronic materials. Polymerization, cross linking glass transition, classification of polymers. Mechanical properties, dielectric behaviour of materials. Uses of polymers. Ceramics and glasses, crystalline and non-crystalline ceramics. Structure of ceramics and glasses. Major mechanical and optical properties. Composite materials. Classification. Matrices and reinforcements. Fabrication methods. Examples and applications. Nano Materials: Importance, Emergence of Nano- Technology, Bottom-Up and Top-down app roaches, challenges in Nano- Technology. Applications.

### Bio Technology (BT)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier series.

Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE- Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Probability and Sampling Theorem, Conditional Probability, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.

**Biotechnology**

Microbiology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Microbial nutrition, growth and control; Microbial metabolism (aerobic and anaerobic respiration, photosynthesis); Nitrogen fixation; Chemical basis of mutations and mutagens; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Microbial diversity and characteristic features; Viruses.

Biochemistry: Biomolecules and their conformation; Weak inter-molecular interactions in biomacromolecules; Chemical and functional nature of enzymes; Kinetics of single substrate and bi-substrate enzyme catalyzed reactions; Bioenergetics; Metabolism (Glycolysis, TCA and Oxidative phosphorylation); Membrane transport and pumps; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell signaling and signal transduction;

Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; DNA replication and control; Transcription and its control; Translational processes; Regulatory controls in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Chromosomal variation; Population genetics; Transposable elements, Molecular basis of genetic diseases and applications.

Process Biotechnology: Bioprocess technology for the production of cell biomass and primary/secondary metabolites, such as baker’s yeast, ethanol, citric acid, amino acids, exopolysacharides, antibiotics and pigments etc.; Microbial production, purification and bioprocess application(s) of industrial enzymes; Production and purification of recombinant proteins on a large scale; Chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation

methods; Immobilization of enzymes and cells and their application for bioconversion processes. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes; Bioremediation.

Bioprocess Engineering: Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Simple structured models; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Aeration and agitation; Mass transfer in bioreactors; Rheology of fermentation fluids; Scale-up concepts; Design of fermentation media; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation in bioreactors.

Plant and Animal Biotechnology: Special features and organization of plant cells; Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant products of industrial importance; Biochemistry of major metabolic pathways and products; Autotrophic and heterotrophic growth; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Cell suspension culture development: methodology, kinetics of growth and production formation, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary

metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root cultures and their cultivation. Techniques in raising transgencies.

Characteristics of animal cells: Metabolism, regulation and nutritional requirements for mass cultivation of animal cell cultures; Kinetics of cell growth and product formation and effect of shear force; Product and substrate transport; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Live stock improvement; Cloning in animals; Genetic engineering in animal cell culture; Animal cell preservation.

Immunology: The origin of immunology; Inherent immunity; Humoral and cell mediated immunity; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; Antigen; B and T cells and Macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Complement; Antigen-antibody reaction; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hyper sensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction.

Recombinant DNA Technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors: plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation; Gene cloning; Expression of cloned gene; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization;

RAPD; RFLP; Sitedirected mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy.

Bioinformatics: Major Bioinformatics resources (NCBI, EBI, ExPASy); Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (bimolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny); Genomics and Proteomics (Large scale genome sequencing strategies; Comparative genomics; Understanding DNA micro arrays and protein arrays); Molecular modeling and simulations (basic concepts including concept of force

fields).

### Civil Engineering (CE)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

Calculus: Functions of single variable, Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives, Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl, Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equations (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

Probability and Statistics: Definitions of probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distributions.

Numerical Methods: Numerical solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, single and multi-step methods for differential equations

**Structural Engineering**

Mechanics: Bending moment and shear force in statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship: Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress transformation, Mohr’s circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and direct bending stresses.

Structural Analysis: Analysis of statically determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in statically determinate structures and analysis of statically indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures. Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.

Concrete Structures: Concrete Technology- properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design basic working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear, compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service loads.

Steel Structures: Analysis and design of tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases. Connections-simple and eccentric, beam’column connections, plate girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

**Geotechnical Engineering & Environmental Engineering**

Soil Mechanics: Origin of soils, soil classification, three-phase system, fundamental definitions, relationship and interrelationships, permeability & seepage, effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength. Foundation Engineering: Sub-surface investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table, layered soils. Stability of slopes infinite slopes, finite slopes. Foundation types-foundation design requirements. Shallow foundations-bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands & clays. Deep foundations pile types, dynamic & static formulae, load capacity of piles in sands & clays, negative skin friction.

**Water Resources and Transportation Engineering**

Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics: Properties of fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and Bernoulli’s equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow, critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow

measurements in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of pumps and turbines.

Hydrology: Hydrologic cycle, rainfall, evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and channel routing. Well hydraulics.

Irrigation: Duty, delta, estimation of evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways.

Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system, irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.

Water requirements: Quality standards, basic unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary, secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal, effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater, sludge disposal.

Air Pollution: Types of pollutants, their sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control, air quality standards and limits.

Municipal Solid Wastes: Characteristics, generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery, treatment and disposal).

Noise Pollution: Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

Highway Planning: Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements.

Traffic Engineering: Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.

Surveying: Importance of surveying, principles and classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections, measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.

### Electrical Engineering (EE)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Probability and Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Electrical Engineering**

Electric Circuits and Fields: Network graph, KCL, KVL, node and mesh analysis, transient response of dc and ac networks; sinusoidal steady-state analysis, resonance, basic filter concepts; ideal current and voltage sources, Thevenin’s, Norton’s and Superposition and Maximum Power Transfer theorems, two-port networks, three phase circuits; Gauss Theorem, electric field and potential due to point, line, plane and spherical charge distributions; Ampere’s and Biot-Savart’s laws; inductance; dielectrics; capacitance.

Signals and Systems: Representation of continuous and discrete-time signals; shifting and scaling operations; linear, time-invariant and causal systems; Fourier series representation of continuous periodic signals; sampling theorem; Fourier, Laplace and Z transforms.

Electrical Machines: Single phase transformer – equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency; three phase transformers – connections, parallel operation; auto-transformer; energy conversion principles; DC machines – types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction and commutation, starting and speed control of motors; three phase induction motors – principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control; single phase induction motors; synchronous machines – performance, regulation and parallel operation of generators, motor starting, characteristics and applications; servo and stepper motors.

Power Systems: Basic power generation concepts; transmission line models and performance; cable performance, insulation; corona and radio interference; distribution systems; per-unit quantities; bus impedance and admittance matrices; load flow; voltage control; power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components; fault analysis; principles of over-current, differential and distance protection; solid state relays and digital protection; circuit breakers; system stability concepts, swing curves and equal area criterion; HVDC transmission and FACTS

concepts.

Control Systems: Principles of feedback; transfer function; block diagrams; steady-state errors; Routh and Niquist techniques; Bode plots; root loci; lag, lead and lead-lag compensation; state space model; state transition matrix, controllability and observability.

Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers; PMMC, moving iron, dynamometer and induction type instruments; measurement of voltage, current, power, energy and power factor; instrument transformers; digital voltmeters and multimeters; phase, time and frequency measurement; Q-meters; oscilloscopes; potentiometric recorders; error analysis.

Analog and Digital Electronics: Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET; amplifiers – biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response; oscillators and feedback amplifiers; operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications; simple active filters; VCOs and timers; combinational and sequential logic circuits; multiplexer; Schmitt trigger; multi-vibrators; sample and hold circuits; A/D and D/A converters; 8-bit microprocessor basics (8085), architecture, programming and interfacing.

Power Electronics and Drives: Semiconductor power diodes, transistors, thyristors, triacs, GTOs, MOSFETs and IGBTs – static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters – fully controlled and half controlled; principles of choppers and inverters; basis concepts of adjustable speed dc and ac drives.

Electric Traction System: Speed-time curves, Specific energy consumption, Mechanism of train movement

### Food Technology (FT)

**Food Chemistry and Nutrition:**

Food chemistry: Carbohydrates -Structure and functional properties of mono, di&oligo-polysaccharides including starch, cellulose, pectic substances and dietary fibre; Proteins – Classification and structure of proteins in food. Lipids-Classification and structure of lipids, Rancidity of fats, Polymerization and polymorphism; Pigments-Carotenoids, chlorophylls, anthocyanins, tannins and myoglobin; Food flavours-Terpenes, esters, ketones and quinones; Enzymes-Enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning in different foods;

Nutrition: Balanced diet, Essential amino acids and fatty acids, PER, Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, Role of minerals in nutrition, Antinutrients, Nutrition deficiency diseases.

**Food Microbiology & Biotechnology:**

Food Microbiology: Characteristics of microorganisms-Morphology, structure and detection of bacteria, yeast and mold in food, Spores and vegetative cells; Microbial growth in food- Intrinsic’ and extrinsic factors, Growth and death kinetics, serial dilution method for quantification; Food spoilageContributing factors, Spoilage bacteria, Microbial spoilage of milk and milk products, meat and meat products; Foodbome disease-Toxins produced by Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Aspergillus; Bacterial pathogens- Salmonella, Bacillus, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Campylobacter; Biotechnology: Fermented food- Buttermilk, yoghurt, cheese, sausage, alcoholic beverage, vinegar, wine, beer, whisky, sauerkraut and soya sauce.

**Food Technology:**

Cereals, pulses and oil seeds: Composition, nutritive value, processing methods and products of

i) rice, wheat, and maize, barley, oats & minor millets; ii) Bengal gram, red gram, green gram, black gram, chick peas iii) Ground nut, soya bean, sunflower & other oil seeds. Fruits, vegetables and plantation crops: Extraction, clarification concentration and packaging of fruit juice, Production of jam, jelly, marmalade, squash, candies, and pickles, pectin from fruit waste, tea, coffee, chocolate and essential oils from spices.

Meat, fish, poultry & milk: Post mortem changes of meat, freezing, aging, pickling, smoking and tenderization of meat, Drying and canning of fish. Structure, composition, nutritive value and functional properties of eggs and its preservation by different methods. Milk and milk products processing: Milk processing flow sheet, filtration/clarification, storage of milk, standardization – simple problems in standardization, omogenization, pasteurization- types of pasteurization process. Manufacture of Cream, Butter, Ghee, Milk powder, Cheese.

**Food Engineering:**

Fluid Mechanics: Nature of fluids, flow properties of fluids, flow through pipes & fittings, flow measurement, transportation of fluids – pumps, compressors and blowers; Heat transfer: Heat transfer by conduction, convection, radiation, boiling and condensation, steady & unsteady state heat

transfer; Other unit operations: size reduction, homogenization, filtration, sedimentation, centrifugation, sieving, mixing, extraction, crystallization, evaporation, drying and extrusion. Types of equipment used in each unit operation, their selection, applications in food industry.

**Food Quality & Standards:**

Food Quality: Food Quality and Quality Attributes-Classification of Quality Attributes and their role in food Quality. Quality Assessment of Food materials – Fruits and Vegetables, Cereals and pulses, dairy Products, Meat, Poultry, Egg and Processed food Products Sensory Evaluation of Food

Quality and its methods Food Adulteration and Food Safety.

Standards: FSSAI / PFA Act 1954 a nd R ule s 1955-Scope; definitions & standards of quality. FPO and MPO-Rules, FSMS -22000:2005-Various elements included in the standard, Introduction to the family of ISO 22000 standards, Comparison of ISO 9001:2008 vs. ISO 22000:2005, FSSAI. HACCP-Terminology, Principles, Identification of CCPs, Application of HACCP System and the logic sequence involved.

### Instrumentation Engineering (EI)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrix Algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigen vectors.

Calculus: Mean value theorems, Theorems of integral calculus, Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial Derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Fourier series. Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, Method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Initial and boundary value problems, Partial Differential Equations and variable separable method.

Complex Variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’ series, Residue theorem, solution integrals.

Probability and Statistics: Probability, Sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and continuous distributions, Exponential, Poisson, Normal and Binomial distribution, Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of non-linear algebraic equations, single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Instrumentation Engineering**

Basics of Circuits and Measurement Systems: Kirchoff’s laws, mesh and nodal Analysis. Circuit theorems. Oneport and two-port Network Functions. Static and dynamic characteristics of Measurement Systems. Error and uncertainty analysis. Statistical analysis of data and curve fitting.

Transducers, Mechanical Measurement and Industrial Instrumentation: Resistive, Capacitive, Inductive and piezoelectric transducers and their signal conditioning. Measurement of displacement, velocity and acceleration (translational and rotational), force, torque, vibration and shock. Measurement of pressure, flow, temperature and liquid level. Measurement of pH, conductivity, viscosity and humidity.

Analog Electronics: Characteristics of diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits. Transistors at low and high frequencies, Amplifiers, single and multi-stage. Feedback amplifiers. Operational amplifiers, characteristics and circuit configurations. Instrumentation amplifier. Precision rectifier. V-to-I and I-to-V converter. Op-Amp based active filters. Oscillators and signal generators.

Digital Electronics: Combinational logic circuits, minimization of Boolean functions. IC families, TTL, MOS and CMOS. Arithmetic circuits. Comparators, Schmitt trigger, timers and mono-stable multi-vibrator. Sequential circuits, flip-flops, counters, shift registers. Multiplexer, S/H circuit. Analog-to-Digital and Digital-to-Analog converters. Basics of number system. Microprocessor applications, memory and input-output interfacing.

Microcontrollers.

Signals, Systems and Communications: Periodic and aperiodic signals. Impulse response, transfer function and frequency response of first- and second order systems. Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform, Convolution, correlation and characteristics of linear time invariant systems. Discrete time system, impulse and frequency response. Pulse transfer function. IIR and FIR filters. Amplitude and frequency modulation and

demodulation. Sampling theorem, pulse code modulation. Frequency and time division multiplexing. Amplitude shift keying, frequency shift keying and pulse shift keying for digital modulation.

Electrical and Electronic Measurements: Bridges and potentiometers, measurement of R,L and C. Measurements of voltage, current, power, power factor and energy. A.C & D.C current probes. Extension of instrument ranges. Qmeter and waveform analyzer. Digital voltmeter and multi-meter. Time, phase and frequency measurements. Cathode ray oscilloscope. Serial and parallel communication. Shielding and grounding.

Control Systems and Process Control: Feedback principles. Signal flow graphs. Transient Response, steadystate-errors. Routh and Nyquist criteria. Bode plot, root loci. Time delay systems. Phase and gain margin. State space representation of systems. Mechanical, hydraulic and pneumatic system components. Synchro pair, servo and step motors. On-off, cascade, P, PI, PID, feed forward and derivative controller, Fuzzy controllers.

Analytical, Optical and Biomedical Instrumentation: Mass spectrometry. UV, visible and IR spectrometry. Xray and nuclear radiation measurements. Optical sources and detectors, LED, laser, Photo-diode, photo-resistor and their characteristics. Interferometers, applications in metrology. Basics of fiber optics. Biomedical instruments, EEG, ECG and EMG. Clinical measurements. Ultrasonic transducers and Ultrasonography. Principles of Computer Assisted Tomography

### Metallurgy (MT)

**Engineering Mathematics**

Linear Algebra: Matrices and Determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.

Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability; Partial Derivatives; Maxima and minima; Sequences and series; Test for convergence; Fourier series.

Vector Calculus: Gradient; Divergence and Curl; Line; surface and volume integrals; Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.

Differential Equations: Linear and non-linear first order ODEs; Higher order linear ODEs with constant coefficients; Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations; Laplace transforms; PDEs – Laplace, heat and wave equations.

Probability and Statistics: Probability and sampling theorem, Conditional Probability, Probability Density Function, Mean, median, mode and standard deviation; Random variables; Exponential, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions; Correlation and regression analysis.

Numerical Methods: Solutions of linear and non-linear algebraic equations; integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule; single and multi-step methods for differential equations.

**Metallurgical Engineering**

Thermodynamics and Rate Processes: Laws of thermodynamics, activity, equilibrium constant, applications to metallurgical systems, solutions, phase equilibria, Ellingham and phase stability diagrams, thermodynamics of surfaces, interfaces and defects, adsorption and segregation; basic kinetic laws, order of reactions, rate constants and rate limiting steps; principles of electro chemistry- single electrode potential, electro-chemical cells and

polarizations, aqueous corrosion and protection of metals, oxidation and high temperature corrosion – characterization and control; heat transfer – conduction, convection and heat transfer coefficient relations, radiation, mass transfer – diffusion and Fick’s laws, mass transfer coefficients; momentum transfer – concepts of viscosity, shell balances, Bernoulli’s equation, friction factors.

Extractive Metallurgy: Minerals of economic importance, comminution techniques, size classification, Flotation, gravity and other methods of mineral processing; agglomeration, pyro- hydro- and electro-metallurgical processes; material and energy balances; principles and processes for the extraction of non-ferrous metals – aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, magnesium, nickel, titanium and other rare metals; iron and steel making – principles, role structure and properties of slags, metallurgical coke, blast furnace, direct reduction processes, primary and secondary steel making, ladle metallurgy operations including deoxidation, desulphurization, sulphide shape control, inert gas rinsing and vacuum reactors; secondary refining processes including AOD, VAD, VOD, VAR and ESR; ingot and continuous casting; stainless steel making, furnaces and refractories.

Physical Metallurgy: Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of metals, alloys, ceramics and polymers, structure of surfaces and interfaces, nano-crystalline and amorphous structures; solid solutions; solidification; phase transformation and binary phase diagrams; principles of heat treatment of steels, cast iron and aluminum alloys;surface treatments; recovery, recrystallization and grain growth; industrially important ferrous and non-ferrous

alloys; elements of X-ray and electron diffraction; principles of scanning and transmission electron microscopy; industrial ceramics, polymers and composites; electronic basis of thermal, optical, electrical and magnetic properties of materials; electronic and optoelectronic materials.

Mechanical Metallurgy: Elasticity, yield criteria and plasticity; defects in crystals; elements of dislocation theory – types of dislocations, slip and twinning, source and multiplication of dislocations, stress fields around dislocations, partial dislocations, dislocation interactions and reactions; strengthening mechanisms; tensile, fatigue and creep behaviour; super-plasticity; fracture – Griffith theory, basic concepts of linear elastic and elasto-plastic fracture mechanics, ductile to brittle transition, fracture toughness; failure analysis; mechanical testing – tension, compression, torsion, hardness, impact, creep, fatigue, fracture toughness and formability.

Manufacturing Processes: Metal casting – patterns and moulds including mould design involving feeding, gating and risering, melting, casting practices in sand casting, permanent mould casting, investment casting and shell moulding, casting defects and repair; hot, warm and cold working of metals, Metal forming – fundamentals of metal forming processes of rolling, forging, extrusion, wire drawing and sheet metal forming, defects in forming; Metal joining – soldering, brazing and welding, common welding processes of shielded metal arc welding, gas metal arc welding, gas tungsten arc welding and submerged arc welding; welding metallurgy, problems associated with welding of steels and aluminium alloys, defects in welded joints; powder metallurgy; NDT using dye-penetrant, ultrasonic, radiography, eddy current, acoustic emission and magnetic particle methods.

### Pharmacy

**Pharmacognosy & Phytochemistry:**

Sources of crude drugs of natural origin and their classification; Factors affecting the cultivation of medicinal and aromatic plants, plant growth regulators; Adulteration and types of adulterants; Methods of evaluation of crude drugs;

Definition, classification, properties, general method of extraction, chemistry, tests for detection of following classes of phytoconstituents- Alkaloids, Glycosides, Terpenoids (volatile oils, resin and resin combinations), Tannins, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Enzymes. Pharmacognostic

aspects of crude drugs containing aforesaid classes of phytoconstituents covering their biological source, diagnostic features, chemical constituents, tests for identification, uses, adulterants, substituents and allied drugs (if any);

Study of fibres used in pharmacy- Cotton, Silk, Wool, Nylon, Polyesters, Glasswool and Asbestos. Plant tissue culture: Types of cultures, nutritional requirements, growth and their maintenance. Applications of plant tissue culture.

**Pharmaceutical Chemistry:**

Introduction to drug design. Stereochemistry of drug molecules.

Structure, nomenclature, classification, synthesis, SAR and metabolism of the following category of drugs, which are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia and British Pharmacopoeia. Hypnotics and Sedatives, Neuroleptics, Antidepressants, Anxiolytics, Anticonvulsants, Local Anaesthetics; Cardiovascular drugs- Antianginal agents Vasodilators, Adrenergic and Cholinergic drugs, Cardiotonic agents, Diuretics, Antihypertensive drugs, Antilipedmic agents; Antihistaminics; Analgesics; NSAIDS; Hypoglycemic agents; Anticoagulants; Antiplatelet agents. Chemotherapeutic agents- Antibiotics, Antibacterials, Antifungal, Antiviral, Antimalarial, Anticancer and Antiamoebic drugs.

Inorganic pharmaceuticals: Gastrointestinal agents; Electrolytes; Haematinics; Topical agents; Dental products; limit tests for Arsenic, Iron, Lead, Barium, Chloride and Sulphate. Pharmaceutics:

Physical pharmacy: Matter and properties of matter; Micromeretics and powder rheology; Surface and interfacial phenomenon; Viscosity and rheology; Dispersion systems; Complexation; Kinetics and drug Stability.

Pharmaceutical Technology: Preformulation studies; Pharmaceutical calculations; Formulation, development, packaging and evaluation of: liquid dosage forms, semisolid dosage forms, tablets, capsules, micro-encapsulation, aerosols, parenteral products, ophthalmic preparations, suppositories,

blood products and plasma substitutes and surgical products; Cosmetic preparations: Skin, Hair, Nails, Lips, Eye, Baby care products and Dentifrices.

Biopharmaceutics & Pharmacokinetics: Passage of drugs across biological barrier; Factors influencing absorption- biological, physico-chemical, physiological and pharmaceutical; Basic principles of Pharmacokinetics; Compartment kinetics- One compartment model with reference to

Intravascular and oral drug administration; Concept of clearance; Non-linear pharmacokinetics with reference to one compartment model after I.V. drug administration; Bioavailability and bioequivalence.

**Pharmacology:**

General pharmacological principles including Toxicology; Pharmacology of drugs acting on Central nervous system, Cardiovascular system (including diuretics), Autonomic nervous system, Gastro intestinal system and Respiratory system; Pharmacology of Autacoids: Histamine, Antihistaminic

drugs. 5-HT- its agonists and antagonists, Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes, and Leucotrienes. Steroidal and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs. Pharmacology of Endocrine system: Thyroid hormones and Antithyroid drugs; Insulin; Oral hypoglycemics; Estrogens; Progesterone and Oral

contraceptives; Androgens and Anabolic steroids; Chemotherapeutic agents; Bioassays, Immuno Pharmacology. Drugs acting on the Blood and Blood forming organs.

Clinical Pharmacy: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Dosage regimen in Renal and Hepatitic impairment. Drug-Drug interactions and Drug-food interactions, Adverse Drug reactions. Medication History, interview and Patient counseling Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance:

Concepts of qualitative and quantitative analysis, fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods-of expressing concentration, primary and secondary standards; acid-base, oxidation-reduction, precipitation, non-aqueous and complexometric titrations; gravimetric analysis; concept of error,

precision, accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, detection limit, linearity and range. Ruggedness, standards, standardization, calibration of analytical equipments. Principles, instrumentation and applications of the following: Absorption spectroscopy (UV, visible & IR), Fluorimetry, Flame

photometry, Potentiometry, Conductometry and Polarography; Chromatographic methods (Paper, TLC, Column, GC and HPLC); Pharmacopoeial assays. Quality assurance and quality control methods, concepts of GMP and GLP.

Forensic pharmacy: Pharmacy Act 1948; Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945 and amendments thereto; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 and Rules; Drugs Price Control Order

#### Download Syllabus of AP PGECET 2019

- Aerospace Engineering
- Bio Technology
- Chemical Engineering
- Civil Engineering
- Computer Science & Information Technology
- Electrical Engineering
- Electronics & Communication Engineering
- Food Technology
- Geo Engineering & Geo Informatics
- Instrumentation Engineering
- Mechanical Engineering
- Metallurgy
- Nano Technology
- Pharmacy