## NEE Syllabus

NEE Syllabus for NEE I, NEE II and NEE III is given below.

## NEE I Exam Syllabus

*Syllabi for Class **10 / Matriculation certificate holder applicants seeking admission in Base Module in Engineering & Technology).*

Full Marks: 150

Time: 3 Hours.

**SECTIONS:**

- Section-A Physics – 35 Marks.
- Section-B Chemistry – 35 Marks.
- Section-C Mathematics – 80 Marks.

**Section-A **

**P****HYSICS 35 Marks.**

**Measurement in Science and Technology:**Measurements and measurement systems; Historical developments in measurement science; The modern measurement system; The international system of units (SI); Maintenance of standards of measurements; Multiples and fractions; Indian national standards of measurements.**Structure of Atom:**Fundamental Experiments and discharge tube and the discovery of the electron; Canal rays or positive rays; X-rays and radioactivity; Atomic nucleus; Structure of atom; Discovery of the neutron; Atomic Number and atomic mass; isotopes.**Motion:**Motion of living and non-living objects; Distance and displacement; Uniform and Non Uniform motion, Velocity; Non uniform motion and acceleration; Graphs and their uses; Uniform circular motion.**Gravitation:**Universal law of gravitation; Motion of particles under gravity; Motion of a projectile, Mass and weight; Geotropism.**Work, Energy and Power:**Work, work done when the force is not along the direction of motion; Energy; Power, Transformation of energy, Conservation of energy.**Heat:**Heat and temperature; Thermal equilibrium; Mercury thermometer, Heat as a form of energy, Effects of Heat; Changes of state.**Wave motion and sound :**Simple Pendulum, Wave motion; Transverse and longitudinal waves; Graphical representation of simple harmonic waves characteristic of harmonic waves; Relation between wave velocity, frequency and wave length for a periodic ; Nature and propagation of sound; speed of sound; Range of hearing in humans, Reflection of sound, practical applications of reflected sound; Echoes; Sonar and Application of Ultrasound.**Light reflection and refraction:**Nature of light; reflection of light by mirrors-by plane mirror, spherical mirrors, new Cartesian sign convention for reflection by spherical mirrors and derivation of mirror formula, magnification; Refraction of light-the refractive Index, reflection through a rectangular glass slab, refraction by spherical lenses, sign convention with spherical lenses – Lens formula, power of a lens, total internal reflection, some optical phenomena in nature; dispersion of white light by a glass prism; color of objects-primary colours of light and pigments.**Optical Instruments:**The human eye; defects of vision and their correction; microscope and the astronomical telescope.**Electricity, its heating and chemical effects:**Electric charges and its properties; conductors and Insulators; electric current-charges in motion; electric potential and potential difference; circuit diagram; Ohms law-resistance, resistivity, resistors in series and in parallel; heating effect of electric current-electric energy and electric power.**Magnetic effects of electric current:**Magnetic field and field lines; magnetic field around a current carrying straight conductor; force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field; electric motors; electromagnetic induction; electric generators; domestic electric circuits; the electric fuse-A safety device.**Nuclear Fission and Fusion:**Nuclear reactions; Nuclear fission; Fission products; Energy released in fission reactions; Chain reaction; Theory of Nuclear fission; Nuclear reactors; Nuclear hazards and safety measures.**The Universe:**The solar system- the sun, the terrestrial planets, the Jovian planets, asteroids, meteorites and comets. The Structure and evolution of the earth; The stars and constellations; Milky way galaxy and other galaxies; Space exploration-Space Programme in India.

**SECTION-B**

**CHEMISTRY ** **35 Marks**

**Matter Around Us:**Physical nature of matter, states of matter; General concept about mixture, solution, colloidal solution, suspension, distillation, condensation, evaporation, sublimation and fusion; Effect of pressure and temperature on states of matter.**Atomic Structure:**Dalton’s atomic theory, elements, compounds, cathode ray, X-ray, Thomson’s model of an atom, Rutherford’s model of atomic structure. Bohr’s model of atomic structure. Electronic configuration (in terms of Shells only) of elements up to Atomic No. 20; Atomic number, Mass number, Isotopes and Isobars; Radioactivity.**Classification of Elements:**Mendeleev and Modern periodic table, Periodic trend of metallic and nonmetallic character, atomic size, nature of bonding, oxides and related chemical properties, prediction of properties of an atom.**Chemical Bonding:**Octet rule or inert gas configuration as criteria of stability. Ion, atom and valency. Ionic bonds, covalent bonds (in simple cases), shape of Molecules of H_{2}O, NH_{3, }CH_{4,}CC1_{4,}C_{2}H_{4}, SF_{6}, PCI_{5, }CO_{2}.**Chemical reactions and Some basic concepts:**Decomposition, Displacement reactions, Isomerization reaction, Combination reactions, Reversible and Irreversible reactions, Reversible reaction and Chemical equilibrium, Law of chemical equilibrium, chemical formula and equations, Atomic and Molecular masses, Mole concept, gram atomic mass and gram molecular mass, Determination of formula of unknown compounds, Balancing of chemical reactions.**Energetics:**Bond energy, Energy involved in a reaction. Photo-chemical reactions and generation of free radicals. Electrolysis of water and NaC1, Electrochemical cells (Galvanic cell) with reference to dry cells and storage cells. Sun and Nuclear energy, Sun and its source of energy (Nuclear fusion), Nuclear fission, Chain reaction, Nuclear reactors, Nuclear hazards, simple nuclear reactions.**Metals:**Physical and chemical properties, Reaction with O_{2}, dilute acid, C1_{2. }Elementary metallurgy of Cu, Fe, Al, and uses of the metals. Washing soda, Baking soda, lime, preparation of Bleaching Powder, Plaster of Paris, Cement, Glass, Steel. Some common alloys of copper, iron and aluminum. Corrosion of metals.**Non-Metals:**Physical and chemical properties, reactions with O_{2}, acid, C1_{2}, H_{2, }Preparation and properties of Si, P, S, ammonia, hydrogen and sulphuric acid. Carbon and its compounds: Allotropes of carbon. Hydrocarbon: Alkanes, Isomerism in alkanes. Petroleum; Preparation and properties of Methanol, Ethanol, Methanal, Propanone, General properties of organic acids and esters, Synthetic polymers: addition polymers (PE, PP, PVC, Teflon) and condensation polymers ( nylons and polyesters); Rubber and its vulcanization; Soaps, detergents; Cleansing action of soaps and detergents.**Bio-mass as fuel:**Fossil fuel, Coal, Petroleum, Natural gas; Classification of Fuels. Calorific value of fuels, Ignition temperature, Combustion of fuels, Characteristics of an ideal fuel.**Environmental Pollution:**Types of pollution and pollutants, Acid rain, Green House Effect, Eutrophication and Soil erosion. Conservation and protection of environment.

**SECTION – C (For PCM Candidates)**

**MATHEMATICS ****80 Marks**

**Algebra:**

**Number System**: Whole numbers, Integers, Rational and Irrational numbers, Surds and rationalization of surds, Real numbers**Polynomials**: Definition of a polynomial, Factorization of polynomials Factorization of quadratic and cubic expressions, HCF and LCM of polynomials.**Rational Expressions**: Addition, Multiplication and Division of rational expressions**Linear Equations in one & two variables**: Solution of Linear equations in one and two variables by cross multiplication and other simple methods; Application to practical problems.**Quadratic Equations**: Zeros of quadratic equations, Solution of quadratic equations by (i) factorization (ii) method of completion of square: quadratic formula, Application quadratic equations.**Arithmetic Progression (AP):**Definition, nth term of an A.P. , Sum of finite number of terms an A.P.

**Geometry**:

**Lines, Angles and Triangles**: Geometrical concepts of a point, Angle and a triangle, Angles made by a transversal with two lines, Sum of the angles of a triangle, Different criteria for congruence of two triangles, Properties of Isosceles triangle, Similar triangles, Proportionality theorems, Concurrent Lines in a triangle.**Parallelograms:**Definition, Properties of a parallelogram, Types of parallelograms, some theorems on parallelograms.**Circles:**Definition, congruence of circles, chords of a circle Arcs of a circle, Angles subtended by Arcs and chords at a point on a circle, angles in a cyclic quadrilateral, Tangents to a circle, Properties of tangents to a circle, Chord of a circle intersecting in a point, Alternate segments and its angles, Common tangents to circles.**Trigonometry**: Trigonometric ratios of angles of measures 0^{0, }30^{0}, 45^{0},60^{0},90^{0}. Trigonometric ratios of some specific angles, solution of right triangles; Trigonometric ratios of complementary angles; Simple problems on heights and distances, Angles of elevation and depressions**Mensuration**: Area of a triangle, quadrilateral, Circle, sector and segment of a circle, Trapezium, Concept of perimeter of these figures. Lateral and total surface area of right triangular prisms, volume of a right triangular prism. Lateral surface area and volume of a right pyramid, surface Area and volume of a tetrahedron, Lateral and total surface area and volume of a cuboid, cube, right circular cylinder, right circular cone hemisphere and surface area and volume of a sphere, surface area and volumes of combinations of these solids, volume and surface are of a frustum of a right circle cone**Statistics and Probability**: Mean, Median Mode and their properties, Measures of central tendency, Probability as a measure of uncertainty.**Coordinate Geometry (2D):**Distance between two points, section formula between two points.

## NEE II Exam Syllabus

*(Syllabi for **10+2 PCM and 10+2 PCB applicants seeking admission in Diploma Module in Engineering & Technology and Degree Module in Forestry, respectively).*

Full Marks : 150 Time: 3 Hours

**(i) SECTIONS :**

- Section-A Physics – 45 marks.
- Section-B Chemistry – 45 marks.
- Section-C Mathematics – 60 marks.
- Section-D Biology – 60 marks.

**Section-A **

**PHYSICS ** **45 marks.**

**Physical World and Measurement: **Physics scope and excitement, physics, technology and society, Forces in nature, Conservation laws, Examples of Gravitational, electromagnetic and Nuclear forces from daily-life experiences (qualitative only). Need for measurement, Units of measurement, systems of units, SI units, Fundamental and derived units, length, mass and time measurement, Accuracy and precision of measuring instruments. Errors in measurement, significant figures. Dimensions of Physical quantities. Dimensional analysis and application. Elementary concept of differentiation and integration for describing motion.

**Kinematics:** Uniform motion in a straight line, Position time graph, speed and velocity, Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity . Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity time graph, relations for uniformly accelerated motion (Graphical method). Scalar and vector quantities, position and displacement vectors, Equality of vectors, multiplications of vectors by real number, Addition and subtraction of vectors, Unit vector, Resolution of a vector in a plane. Rectangular components, Scalar and Vector products of two vectors, vectors in 3 dimensions (elementary idea only) Motion in a plane, Uniform velocity and uniform acceleration, projectile motion, uniform circular motion.

**Laws of Motion: **Force and inertia, Newton’s first law of motion, Momentum, Newton’s second law of motion, Impulse , Newton’s third law of motion, conservation law of linear momentum and its application, Equilibrium of concurrent forces, Friction, static and dynamic friction, laws of friction, rolling and sliding friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion, centripetal force, Vehicle on a level road, Vehicle on a banked road. Inertial and non-inertial frames (Idea only).

**Work, Energy and Power: **Work done by a constant force and variable force, kinetic energy, Potential energy, work-energy theorem, power. Potential energy of a spring, conservative and non-conservative forces, conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies), collisions, Elastic and inelastic collision in 1 dimension and 2 dimensions. Different forms of Energies in nature, Mass-Energy equivalence (Qualitative Idea).

**Motion of system of particles and Rigid Body: ** Centre of mass of two particle system, generalization to N-particles, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion, Application to familiar systems, centre of mass of a rigid body.

**Gravitation :** The universal law of Gravitation, Gravitational constant, Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude, latitude, depth and rotation of earth, Mass of the earth, Gravitational potential energy near the surface of earth, gravitational potential, Escape Velocity. Orbital Velocity of a Satellite. Weightlessness, Motion of Satellites, geostationary and polar satellites, Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. Proof of second and third law, (for circular orbit) Inertial and gravitational mass. Moment of force, torque, angular momentum, Physical meaning of angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples ( Planetary motion). Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion. Moment of Inertia & its physical significance, radius of gyration, parallel and perpendicular axis theorem (statement only) M.I. of circular ring, disc, cylinder and thin straight rod. Rolling of a cylinder without slipping. Examples of binary system in nature (Binary Stars, Earth-moon system, diatomic molecules).

**Mechanics of Solids and Fluids:** States of matter, inter atomic and inter molecular forces.

**Solids :**Elastic behavior, stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity & some practical examples.**Fluids:**Pressure due to fluid column, Pascal’s law and its application (hydraulic lift and brakes) Effect of gravity on fluid pressure . Buoyancy, flotation, and Archimedes principle, Viscosity, Stoke’s law, terminal velocity, stream line flow, trubulent flow. Reynold’s number. Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.- Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, application of surface tension, excess pressure inside a liquid drop and bubble, capillary rise and action of detergent.

**Heat and Thermodynamics**: Kinetic theory of gases-assumptions, concept of pressure, kinetic energy and temperature, r.m.s. speed, degree of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only), mean free path and Avogadro’s number.

Thermal equilibrium and temperature (Zeroth law of thermodynamics) Heat, work and internal energy, thermal expansion-thermometry. First law of thermodynamics, specific heat, specific heat of gas at constant volume and pressure (mono atomic, diatomic gases). Specific heat of solids (Dulong and Petits’ law).

Thermodynamic variables and equation of state, phase diagram; ideal gas equation, isothermal and adiabatic processes, reversible and irreversible processes carnot’s engine and refrigerator or heat pump. Efficiency and co-efficient of performance, second law of thermodynamics (statement only); and some practical applications.

Transfer of heat-Conduction, convection and radiation. Thermal conductivity of solids, Black body radiation, Kirchhoff’s laws, Wein’s displacement law, Stefan’s law (statement only) Newton’s law of cooling, solar constant and determination of surface temperature of sun using Stefan’s law.

**Oscillations: ** Periodic motion- period, frequency, displacement as a function of time and periodic functions. Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM) and its equation, Expression for velocity and acceleration of SHM. Oscillations of a spring, restoring force and force constant, Energy in SHM-Kinetic and potential energies, Simple pendulum- derivation of its time period, Free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative idea only), resonance, coupled oscillations.

**Waves: ** Longitudinal and transverse wave, wave motion, Displacement relation for progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, Reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and pipes, fundamental and higher harmonics, Beats, Doppler’s effect, speed of sound in media.

**Electrostatics: ** Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, coulomb’s law, Forces between two point electric charges. Forces between multiple electric charges; Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric fields and its physical significance, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric field due to a dipole and behavior of a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric potential-physical meaning, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly changed infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell. Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectrics and electric polarization, general concept of a capacitor and capacitance : Combination of capacitors in series and parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates; Van de Graff generator.

**Current Electricity: ** Electric current, flow of electric charge in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility and their relation with electric current, ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics, Exception, of ohm’s law (Non-linear V-I characteristics), Electrical resistivity and conductivity, classification of materials in terms of conductivity; Superconductivity (elementary idea); Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors, combination of resistances- series and parallel.

Temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, Potential difference and e.m.f. of a cell, combinations of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws – illustration by simple application. Wheatstone bridge and its Applications for temperature Measurements. Metre bridge-special case of whetstone’s bridge. Potentiometer- principle and application to measure potential difference, and for comparing e.m.f. of two cells.

Electric power, thermal effects of current and Joule’s law, Chemical Effects of Current: Faraday’s laws of electrolysis; Electrochemical Cells- Primary (Voltaic Lechlanche, Dry Daniel,) and secondary- rechargeable cells (lead accumulators, alkali accumulators) solid state cells. Thermoelectricity- origin, elementary idea of See beck effect; Thermocouple. Thermo e.m.f. neutral and inversion temperatures. Measurement of temperature using a thermocouple.

**Magnetic effects of current & magnetism: ** Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment, Biot-Savart law, magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and a circular loop: Ampere’s circuital law and its application to straight and toroidal solenoids; Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, cyclotron; Force on a current carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, Forces between two parallel current- carrying conductors, definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, Magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along the axis and perpendicular to the axis; Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines. Earth’s magnetic fields and magnetic elements : Para, dia and ferromagnetic substances with examples. Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

**Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating currents: ** Electromagnetic Induction, Faraday’s Laws, Induced e.m.f. and current, Lenz’s law, Eddy currents, Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents peak and r.m.s. values of Altemating current/voltage, reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit (Phasor diagram) Resonant circuits and Q-factor, Power in AC circuits, Wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

**Electromagnetic Waves**: Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative idea only); Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.

Electromagnetic spectrum (Radio-microwaves, infrared, optical, Ultraviolet, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

**Optics :** Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its application, spherical lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula; Magnification, Power of a lens, combination of this lenses in contact; Refraction and dispersion of light due to a prism, Scattering of light. Blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sun-rise and sun set.

Optical Instruments – Compound Microscope, astronomical telescope (refraction and reflection type) and their magnifying powers.

Wave front and Huygens’s principle; Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts (qualitative idea); Interference- Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, Coherent sources and sustained interference of light; Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, difference between interference and diffraction.

Resolving power of microscope and telescope, Polarization-plane polarized light, Brewster’s Law, Use of plane polarized light and Polaroid.

**Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation**: Photo-Electric effect, Einstein’s Photo-electric equation, Particle nature of light, Photo Cell, Matter waves, Wave nature of particles, De-Broglie relation, de Broglie wave length of an electron. Davisson-Germer Experiment.

**Atomic Nucleus**: Alpha-particle scattering experiment, size of the nucleus, composition of the nucleus, protons and neutrons, Nuclear instability- Radioactivity-Alpha, Beta and Gamma particles/rays and their properties, radioactive decay law, simple explanation of decay, beta- decay and gamma-decay. Mass-energy relation, mass defect, binding energy per nucleon, its variation with mass number. Nature of nuclear forces, nuclear reaction, Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion.

**Solid and Semi-conductor Devices: ** Energy bands in solids (qualitative idea only), difference between metals, insulators and semiconductors using band theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors, p-n junction, semi-conductor diode-characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, solar cell, photodiode. LED, Zener diode as a voltage regulator, Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor. Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR,AND,NOT,NAND and NOR); Elementary ideas about IC.

**SECTION-B **

**CHEMISTRY** **45 marks**

**Some Basic concepts of chemistry: **Nature of matter, properties of matter and their measurements, Law of Chemical combination, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Atomic and molecular masses, Mole concept, Stoichiometry and stoichiometric calculations.

**Structure of Atoms and Chemical Bonding: **Constituent of the atom, electronic structure of atom, understanding electron behavior, Bohr’s model of hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms, spectrum of hydrogen, Dual nature of electron, de Broglie equation, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle; Quantum numbers, shapes of orbital, Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity; Electronic configuration of elements up to atomic numbers 30. Chemical bonding: Lewis structure, Hybridization and VSEPR theory with reference to BeC1_{2}, BF_{3}, CH_{4}, CC1_{4}, NH_{3}, H_{2}O, NH_{4}^{+}, H_{3}O^{+}, PCl_{5}, SF_{6}, C_{2}H_{4} and C_{2}H_{2}. Molecular orbital theory with reference to simple homodiatomic molecules up to atomic number 10. Hydrogen bond. Dipole moment in simple molecules.

**States of Matter: ** The gaseous state: Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases. Laws governing the ideal behavior of gases, deviation from the ideal behavior; van der Waals equation of state for real gases. Concept of critical constants, Liquefaction of gases.

Solid State: Structure of simple ionic compounds, Close–packed structure, ionic radii; Silicates, Imperfections in solids, properties of crystalline solids and amorphous solids.

**Solutions: ** Types of solution, Vapor pressure of solution and Raoult’s law, Ideal and non-ideal solutions. Colligative properties, Abnormal molecular masses.

**Chemical Thermodynamics: ** Some basic concepts; Energy changes during a chemical reaction, Internal energy and Enthalpy. Enthalpy of reaction, First law of thermodynamics, Concept of Entropy and Free energy, Spontaneity of a process, Second and Third law of thermodynamics.

**Chemical Equilibrium: ** Equilibrium involving physical change and chemical system, Law of Mass action and its application to equilibrium. Le-Chatelier’s principle and its applications. Ionic Equilibria; Ostwald’s dilution law; Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis concept of acids and bases. pH scale, Buffer solutions and Solubility product.

**Chemical Kinetics: **Rate of reaction, Instantaneous rate of a reaction, Molecularity and order of a reaction, Factors affecting the rate of a reaction, Elementary and complex reactions, Determination of the order of a reaction, Dependence of reaction rate on temperature and catalyst, Photochemical reactions, Mechanism of a reaction.

**Surface Chemistry:** Adsorption, Colloidal solutions, Emulsions. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.

**Redox Reactions: ** Oxidation and reduction as an electron transfer process, Oxidation number, balancing of redox equations.

**Electrochemistry: **Electrolytic conductance, Equivalent and molar conductivities, Galvanic cell, Electrode potential and EMF of a Galvanic cell, Dependence of EMF on concentration and temperature Electrochemical cell and free energy, Electrolysis, Quantitative aspect of electrolysis, Faraday’s Laws, and Criteria for product formation; Some commercial batteries, Corrosion.

**s-Block Elements: ** General trends , characteristics of compounds of Alkali and Alkaline earth metals. Anomalous behaviour of Lithium and Beryllium. Some important compounds of Sodium and Calcium. Chemistry of Hydrogen, Water and Hydrogen peroxide.

**p-Block Elements: ** General trends. Anomalous behaviour of Boron and Carbon. Allotropy: Different allotropes of Carbon, Sulphur, Phosphorus, and Tin. Chemistry of some important compounds of Boron, Carbon, Silicon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Oxygen, Sulphur, and Halogens. Characteristics of Group-18 elements, and Chemistry of Xenon. Metallurgy of Aluminium.

**d- & f-Block Elements: **General trends, Characteristic properties of transition and inner transition elements. General properties of first row transition metal compounds. Metallurgy of Iron and Copper. Manufacture of steel, Chemistry of some heavy metals like Silver, Gold, Zinc, Mercury, and Compounds such as Potassium permanganate and Potassium dichromate.

**Co-ordination and Organo-metallic Compounds: ** Co-ordination compounds, Isomerism and bonding in co-ordination compounds; Stability of co-ordination compounds in solution; Importance of co-ordination compounds. Organo-metallic compounds.

**Organic Chemistry: **Classification and nomenclature of organic compounds, Isomerism and stereochemistry. Fundamental concepts in organic reaction mechanism, Methods of purification; Qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds; Modern methods of structure elucidation.

Hydrocarbons: Preparation and properties of alkanes, alkenes and alkynes; Aromatic hydrocarbons, aromaticity. Preparation, properties and structure of Benzene.

Organic compounds with functional group**: ** General methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and important uses of haloalkanes, haloarenes, polyhalogen compounds, alcohols, phenols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives of carboxylic acids, cyanides, isocyanides, amines, nitro and azo compounds.

Polymers**:** Nomenclature and classification of polymers, Types of polymerization, Molecular mass of polymers; Some commercially important polymers.

Bio-molecules**:** Structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and vitamins.

Nuclear Chemistry**:** Discovery of radioactivity and nature of radiation from radio active substances; Chemical equations for nuclear changes, Radioactive series, Rate of radioactive decay, Artificial transmutation radioactivity, Synthetic elements, Nuclear fission, Nuclear fusion. Applications of radioactivity and radio-isotopes.

**Chemistry in Everyday life****:** Dyes, Chemicals in medicines, Chemistry of rocket propellants, Chemicals in food, Soaps and Detergents.

**SECTION-C**

**MATHEMATICS 60 marks**

**Algebra****: **Sets: Sets and their representations, finite and infinite sets, subsets, empty or null set, universal set, equal sets, power set and complement of a set, union and intersection of sets and their algebraic properties, difference of sets, Venn diagrams, application of sets.

**Relations and functions:** ordered pairs, Cartesian product of sets, relations, domain, co-domain and range, into and onto functions, one one into and one one onto functions, constant function, identity function, composition of functions, invertible functions, Binary operations.

**Complex Numbers:** Complex number in the form (a+ib), representation of complex numbers by points in plane, Argand diagram, algebra of complex numbers, real and imaginary parts of a complex number, triangle inequality, modulus and argument (or amplitude) of a complex number, conjugate, square root of a complex number, cube root of unity, polar representation of a complex number.

**Theory of quadratic equation:** Solution of a quadratic equation in the complex number system by (i) factorization (ii) using formula, relation between roots & coefficients, the nature of roots, formation of quadratic equations with given roots, Symmetric functions of roots, Equations reducible to quadratic forms.

**Sequences and series:** Sequence and examples of finite and infinite sequences, Arithmetic progression (A.P.)- first term, common difference and nth term, sum to n terms of an A.P., Arithmetic mean (A.M.), insertion of A.M. between any two given numbers, Geometric progression (G.P.)-first term, common ratio and nth term, Sum to n terms and infinite number of terms of a G.P., recurring decimal numbers as G.P., Geometric Mean (G.M.) insertion of G.M. between any two given numbers, Harmonic progression, Harmonic mean(H.M),relationship among A.M., G.M. and H.M, arithmetico-geometric series, special cases of exponential series concept of e as the sum of an infinite series, proof of 2<e<3, exponential function (e^{x}) as the infinite series, logarithmic series- infinite series for log_{e} (1+x), log_{e}(1-x) and related problems.

**Permutations and combinations**: Fundamental principle of counting, the factorial notation, Permutation as an arrangement, meaning of P (n,r), combination, meaning of C(n,r) ,application of permutations & combinations.

**Mathematical Induction:** The principle of mathematical Induction, simple applications.

Binomial theorems**:** Statement of binomial theorem, proof of the binomial theorem for positive integral exponent using the principle of mathematical induction, general and middle terms in binomial expansions, Binomial theorem for any index (without proof), application of binomial theorem for approximation and properties of binomial coefficients.

**Mathematical logic:** Mathematical Logic statement, Venn diagrams, negation, basic logical connectives and compound statement including the negations, truth tables, duality algebra of statements and applications of logic in solving simple problems. Matrices and determinants: Types of matrices, Equality of matrices, operations of addition, scalar multiplication and multiplication of matrices, statements of important results on operations of matrices and their verification by numerical problems only, linear equations in matrix notation, determinants, determinant of a square matrix, properties of determinants, minors & cofactors of determinants, applications of determinants in (i) finding area of a triangle (ii) Solving a system of linear equations, Cramer’s rule, transpose, adjoint and inverse of a matrix, consistency and inconsistency of system of linear equations, application of matrices in solving simultaneous linear equations in two or three variables.

**Boolean Algebra**: Boolean algebra as an algebraic structure, principle of duality, Boolean function, conditional and biconditional statements, valid arguments, switching circuits, application of Boolean algebra to switching circuits.

**Trigonometry: **Trigonometric functions of sum and difference of numbers, Trigonometric functions of multiples and submultiples of numbers, conditional identities for the angles of a triangle, Solution of trigonometric equations, solution of triangles, concept of inverse trigonometric functions and their use to reduce expression to simplest form.

**Vectors:** Vectors & scalars, Magnitude and direction of a vector, types of vectors, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line, Vector (cross) product of two vectors, application of dot & cross products in (i) finding area of a triangle and a parallelogram (ii) problems of plane geometry and trigonometry (iii) finding work done by a force (iv) vector moment of a vector about a point, scalar triple product and its applications, Moment of a vector about a line, co planarity of three vectors or four points using scalar triple product, vector triple product .

**Coordinate Geometry**: Two Dimension**:** (i) Area of a triangle, condition for the collinearity of three points, centroid and in-centre of a triangle, locus and its equation.

The straight line and pair of straight lines –Various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, condition for concurrency of three lines, distance of a point from a line, coordinates of orthocentre and Circum centre of a triangle, equation of family of lines passing through the point of inter- section of two lines, homogeneous equation of second degree in x & y , angle between pair of lines through the origin, combined equation of the bisectors of the angles between a pair of lines, condition for the general second degree equation to represent a pair of lines, point of inter-section and angle between two lines represented by S=0 and the factors of S.

**Circles**: Standard form of the equation of a circle, general form of the equation of a circle, its radius and center, equation of a circle in the parametric form, equation of a circle when the end points of a diameter are given, points of inter- section of a line and a circle in the center at the origin and condition of a line to be tangent to the circle, length of tangent, equation of the tangent, equation of a family of circles through the inter- section of two circles, condition for two inter- secting circles to be orthogonal.

Conic sections- Sections of cones, equations of conic sections (parabola, ellipse, hyperbola) in standard forms, conditions for y_{=}mx+c to be a tangent and points of tangency.

**Geometry of Three Dimension (3D)**: Coordinate axes, planes in three dimensional space, coordinates of a point in space, distance between two points, section formula, d.c’.s. and d.r’.s. of a line joining two points, projection of the join of two points on a given line, angle between two lines whose d.r’.s. are given, Cartesian and vector equation of a line through (i) a point and parallel to a given vector (ii) through two points, co- linearity of three points, coplanar & skew line, shortest distance between two lines, condition for the intersection of two lines, Cartesian & vector equation of a plane (i) when the normal vector and the distance of the plane from the origin is given (ii) passing through a point and perpendicular to given vector (iii) passing through a point and parallel to two given lines through the intersection of two other planes (iv) Containing two lines(v) Passing through three points, Angle between two lines (ii) two planes (iii) a line and a plane. Condition of co-planarity of two lines in vector and Cartesian form, Length of perpendicular of a point from a plane by both vector and Cartesian methods, vector and Cartesian equation of a sphere, its center and radius, diameter form of the equation of a sphere.

**Calculus**: Function, Limits and Continuity: Concept of real function, its domain and range, types of functions, limit of a function, meaning and related notations, left and right hand limits, fundamental theorems on limits, limit at infinity and infinite limits, continuity of a function (i) at a point (ii) over an open/closed intervals, Sum, product and quotient of continuous functions, continuity of special functions-polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, inverse trigonometric functions.

**Differentiation:** Derivative of a function, its geometrical and physical significance, Relationship between continuity and differentiability, derivative of some simple functions from first principle, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions, derivative of polynomial, trigonometric, exponential, logarithmic, inverse trigonometric and implicit functions, derivative of functions expressed in parametric form, chain rule and differentiation by substitution, Derivatives of second order.

** Application of Derivatives:** Rate of change of quantities, tangents and normals, increasing and decreasing functions and sign of the derivatives, maxima & minima, greatest and least values, Rolle’s theorem and mean value theorem (without proof ), curve sketching of simple curves.

** Indefinite integrals:** Integration as inverse of differentiation, properties of integrals, integration by substitution, by parts, partial fractions and their use in integration, integration of rational and irrational functions, integration of trigonometric functions of the type

**Definite Integrals**: Definite integral as limit of a sum, fundamental theorems of integral calculus (without proof), evaluation of definite integrals by (i) substitution (ii) using properties of definite integrals , application of definite internals in finding the areas bounded by a curve, circle, parabola and ellipse in- standard form between two ordinates and x-axis , area between two curves (line and circle, line & parabola, line & ellipse).

** Differential Equations**: Definition, order and degree, general and particular solution, formation of a differential equation whose general solution is given, solution of differential equation by the method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations, linear differential equation of the type are functions of x, Solution of second order differential equations.

Statics and Dynamics**: **Elementary Statics- Introduction, basic concepts, laws of mechanics, force, resultant of forces acting at point, parallelogram Law of forces, resolved parts of a force, equilibrium of a particle under three concurrent forces, triangle law of forces and its converse, Lami’s theorem and its converse, two parallel forces, Like and unlike parallel forces, couple and its moment.

**Elementary Dynamics**: Basic concept. like displacement, speed, velocity, average speed, instantaneous speed, acceleration and retardation, resultant of two velocities, Motion of a particle along a line when moving with constant acceleration, motion of a particle under gravity, projectile motion, the path of a projectile, its horizontal range, velocity at any instant, greatest height and time of flight.

**Probability**: Random experiment and associated sample space events as subsets of sample space, occurrence of an event, impossible events, sure events, combination of events through the operations “and”, “or”, “not” and their set representation, meaning of equally likely outcomes, definition of probability of an event as the ratio of the number of favorable equally likely outcomes to the total number of outcomes, equally likely events, addition rule for mutually exclusive events, Conditional probability, independent-events, independent experiments, Calculation of probability of events associated with the independent experiments P (A or B), P (A and B) , Baye’s theorem and its application, recall of concept of random variables and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variables, Binomial and Poisson’s distributions, their mean, variance and application of these distributions in commerce and industry.

**SECTION-C (For PCB Candidates) **

**BIOLOGY 60 Marks**

**Origin and Evolution of life: **Theories and evidences of origin of life, Concept of species, speciation and isolation; Homeostasis; Scope of biology; Classification-artificial, natural and phylogenetic; Binomial nomenclature; Status of bacteria and virus.

**Cell biology :** Ulta structure of cell; cell organelles and their function; Cell division; Karyotype analysis; Chromosomal basis and other patterns of inheritance; Linkages and crossing over; Mutation and chromosomal aberrations; Gene mapping; Human genetics; Structure of RNA and its role in protein synthesis; Gene expression and its regulation; Nuclear basis of differentiation and development; Oncogenes; DNA as a genetic material; Recombinant DNA technology; Gene bank; DNA fingerprinting; Genomics-principles and applications; Transgenic plants, animals and microbes.

**Physiology of plants and animals:** Plant water relations; Transpiration; Photosynthesis; Respiration, glycolysis, Kreb’s cycle, compensation point, Respiratory Quotient; Food and Vitamins; Inter- and intra-cellular digestion; Role of hormones and enzymes in digestion; malnutrition; Respiration and circulation in animals; Blood, its composition and related disorder; Osmoregulation and excretion.

Reproduction and growth in plants and animals: Vegetative, micropropagation and sexual reproduction; Flowering-Photoperiodism, Vernalization; Pollination; Double fertilization; Parthenogenesis and Parthenocarpy; Reproduction in animal-embryonic development, growth, repair, aging and death; Movement and locomotion in plants and animals; Nervous coordination in animal; Phytochromes; seed germination; Role of growth regulators in seed dormancy.

**Ecology and Environment**: Organism and the environment; Population, community, ecosystem and biosphere; Major biomes; Ecological succession; Productivity; Energy flow in ecosystem; Nutrient cycling; Natural resources and its conservation; Biodiversity; Environmental pollution; Global environmental changes; Environmental ethics and legislation.

**Morphology of plants and animals:** Morphology and modification of root, stem and leaf; Inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed structure and types; Description of family poaceae, liliaceae, fabacae, solanaceae and asteraceae; Meristematic and permanent tissues; Anatomy of root, stem and leaf; Secondary growth; Animal tissues-structure and function of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues; Salient features of earthworm, cockroach and rat.

**Application of biology**: Human population growth and factors; Common problem of drug, Alcohol and tobacco; Mental and addictive disorder; Common human diseases; Technology for medical application; Plant tissue culture and its application; Bioenergy; Biopesticide; Biopiracy; Bioethics; Domestication and improvement of plants and animals; Biomedical technologies such as radiography, angiography, sonography, ECG,EEG,ELISA test; Types, detection and diagnosis of cancer.

**NEE-II (Vocational)**

*(For 10+2 vocational / ITI / NERIST Certificate holder applicants seeking admission to Diploma module in Technology stream)***.**

Full Marks : 150 Time: 3 Hours.

**SECTIONS :**

- Section-A Physics 25 marks.
- Section-B Chemistry 25 marks.
- Section-C Mathematics 30 marks.
- Section-D Vocational Subject 70 marks.

**Section-A **

**PHYSICS 25 Marks.**

**Units and dimensions:** Units for measurements, systems of units, fundamental and derived units, SI units. Dimensional analysis and their applications.

Motion in one and two dimensions** :** Objects in motion in one dimension, motion in a straight line, uniform motion, its graphical representation and formulae, speed and velocity, instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, its position-time graph, velocity-time graph and formulae.

Vectors and scalars, representations of vectors in two dimensions, unit vector, vector addition and multiplication, Resolution of vectors in plane, rectangular components, Scalar and vector products, Motion in two dimensions, projectile motion, uniform circular motion.

**Laws of motion:** Force and inertia, first law of motion, Momentum, second law of motion, impulse, Third law of motion, examples of third law, linear momentum, conservation of linear momentum, Equilibrium of concurrent forces, Static and kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication.

Work, Energy and Power: Work done by a constant force, Kinetic and potential energy, power, Work-energy principle, Spring constant, Gravitational potential energy, Conservation of energy, Elastic collision in one dimension.

**Rotational motion**: Centre of mass of a two-particle system, centre of mass of a rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, motion of centre of mass, nature of rotational motion, rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions, Uniform circular motion and their examples, Torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum, Moment of inertia and its physical significance.

**Gravitation**:Newton’s law of gravitation, universal gravitational constant ‘G’, acceleration due to gravity ‘g’, mass and density of the earth, inertial and gravitational mass, variations of ‘g’. Gravitational potential energy near the earth’s surface, gravitational potential, orbital velocity, escape velocity, geostationary satellite.

**Properties of matter:** Inter atomic and intermolecular forces, states of matter, Elastic properties of solids, Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus and modulus of rigidity. Fluid pressure, Pascal’s law, buoyancy, flotation, Archimedes’ principle, Atmospheric pressure. Surface Energy and Surface Tension, angle of contact, Capillary rise, Viscosity, Stokes law, streamline & Turbulent flow, Reynold’s number, Bernoulli’s Theorem & its applications.

**Heat and thermodynamics: **Kinetic theory of gases, pressure exerted by a Gas, kinetic Energy & Temperature, Measurement of temperature, Absolute temperature scale, Gas Laws and Avogadro’s number. Specific heat of solids & liquids, Latent heats of fusion & vapourisation , Transfer of heat.

**Oscillations and waves**: Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion, equation of simple harmonic motion, kinetic and potential energy in simple harmonic motion, Oscillations due to a spring mass system, simple pendulum, time period of a simple pendulum. Wave motion, speed of a wave, principle of superposition, reflection of wave, Standing waves in string (graphical representation only), Sound wave and its propagation in different media, Effect of pressure and temperature on velocity of sound waves, characteristics of sound waves.

**Electrostatics**: Frictional Electricity, charges and their conservation, Coulomb’s law, Electric field and potential due to a point charge, Dipole, its fields along the axis, Concept of dielectric and dielectric constant, Conductors and insulators.

Presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Capacitance, parallel plate capacitor with air and dielectric medium between the plates, series and parallel combination of capacitors, energy stored in a capacitor, van de graaff generator.

**Current electricity:** Electric current, Ohm’s law, resistivity, resistance of different materials, temperature dependence of resistance, resistances in series and parallel, Kirchhoff’s law – illustrations by simple examples, Wheatstone bridge and its applications for comparing emf of two cells and determination of internal resistance of a cell, Electric power and heating effects of current .

**Magnetic effect of current:** Oersted’s experiment, Force on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field, Force on a current carrying conductor and torque on current loop in a magnetic field, forces between two parallel current carrying conductors, definition of Ampere, Moving coil galvanometer and its conversion into ammeter and voltmeter.

**Magnetism**:** **Natural and man made magnets, properties of bar magnet, current loop as magnetic dipole, Lines of force in a magnetic field, Comparison of bar magnet and solenoid, Earth’s magnetic field, Tangent galvanometer, vibration magnetometer, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.

**Electromagnetic induction and alternating current:** Induced emf, Faraday’s laws, Lenz’s law, electromagnetic induction, self and mutual inductance,

**Ray Optics and Optical Instruments :** Sources of light, luminous intensity, luminous flux, Reflection of light at plane and spherical surfaces, Curved mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, refractive index, total internal reflection, spherical lenses, thin lens formulae, lens maker’s formula, magnification. Refraction and dispersion of light due to prism, spectrometer – its use for the determination of refractive index of material of a prism, Scattering of light in atmosphere, primary rainbow, Optical instruments – simple and compound microscopes, refracting and reflecting telescopes.

**Section-B**

**CHEMISTRY 25 Marks.**

**Structure of Atom: ** Discovery and properties of sub-atomic particles (electron, proton and neutron), Rutherford’s atomic model, Bohr’s model of hydrogen and hydrogen-like atoms, Spectrum of hydrogen, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Dual nature of electron, de-Broglie equation, Quantum numbers, Concept of atomic orbital, Pauli’s exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Aufbau principle, Electronic configuration of elements up to atomic number 20.

**Chemical Bonding:** Ionic, Covalent, Co-ordinate covalent, Hydrogen and metallic bonds, Properties of compounds having these bonds. Hybridization and VSPER theory for the molecular shape of simple molecules such as BeC1_{2}, BF_{3}, CH_{4}, CC1_{4}, NH_{3}, H_{2}O, NH_{4}^{+}, H_{3}O^{+}, PCl_{5}, SF_{6}, C_{2}H_{4} and C_{2}H_{2}.

**Periodic Properties of Elements: ** Mendeleev’s periodic table and long form of the periodic table (Main features, merits and demerits), Periodic properties (Metallic characters, ionization potential electron affinity and electronegativity), Classification of elements into s, p, d and f – blocks, General trends of periodic properties of s- and p-block elements.

**Gaseous State**: Physical properties of gases, Laws governing their behavior (Boyle’s Law, Charle’s Law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, Avogadro’s law, Dalton’s law of partial pressure, Graham’s law of diffusion), Ideal gas equation, Kinetic molecular theory of ideal gases, Deviation from ideals behaviour, van der Waals equation of state; Continuity of states, Importance of critical constants, Liquefaction of gases.

**Chemical Equilibrium:** Reversible reaction, Law of mass action and its application to chemical equilibrium, Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibrium, Le Chatelier’s principle and its application, Ionic equilibria. Theory of electrolytic dissociation, Ostwald’s dilution law; Arrhenius, Bronsted – Lowry and Lewis concepts of acids and bases.

**Redox Reactions**: Oxidation and reduction processes (classical and modern concepts), Oxidation state, Calculation of equivalent mass of oxidizing and reducing agents, Balancing of redox reactions using oxidation number and ion-electron methods.

**Electrochemistry:** Faraday’s laws of electrolysis (statement, explanation and application), Numerical problems; Electrical conductance, specific conductance, equivalent and molar conductances; General concept of Galvanic cell and its representation; Electrode potential, Standard hydrogen electrode and reference electrode, Electro-chemical series and its applications, EMF of a Galvanic cell, Nernst equation for electrode and cell potentials; Some commercial cells and batteries.

**Organic chemistry: ** Classification of organic compounds, Nomenclature of hydrocarbons and compound containing one functional group, homologous series, Isomerism. General methods of preparation and properties of Alkanes, Alkenes and Alkynes. Aromatic hydrocarbons, Structure of benzene. Electrophilic substitution reactions in benzene.

**Organic compounds with one functional group:** Simple methods of preparation and properties of Halo-alkanes, Alcohols, Phenols, Ethers, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic acids, Derivatives of carboxylic acid, amino-, cyano-, isocyano-, azo-, and nitro- compounds.

**Section-C**

**MATHEMATICS 30 Marks.**

**Trigonometry** **: **Trigonometric ratios of compound, multipleand sub-multiple angles, General solution of trigonometric equations, Properties and solution of triangles, Inverse circular functions.

**Algebra**: (i) Complex Numbers : Complex number and its properties, Different forms of complex numbers, roots of complex numbers, cube roots of unity and their properties, De-Moivre’s theorem. (ii) Progressions : Arithmetic and Geometric progressions, Arithmetic and Geometric means, Harmonic Progression, sum of n-terms and nth terms of A.P. & G.P. (iii) Permutation and combinations, Binomial theorem for positive integral index, Middle term, greatest term, Binomial coefficients. (iv) Partial fractions of different forms (v) Determinants of order two, three and their properties.

**Coordinate Geometry(2D): ** Coordinates of a point in a plane, distance between two points, Division of a line segment in a given ratio (internal and external division), Different forms of equation of a straight line, Distance of a point from a line, Angle between two lines, Bisector of an angle between two lines, Pair of straight lines, Equation of a circle, tangent and normal to a circle, Equation of second degree representing a conic section, Basic ideas about parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.

**Coordinate Geometry (3D)**: Coordinates of a point in three dimensions, Distance between two points, division of join of two points. Angle between two lines, Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line, Projection of a point on a line.

Equation of a plane, Different forms of equation to a plane, Angle between two planes, Plane through three given points, Angle between a plane and line, Equation of a straight line in space, Coplanar lines, shortest distance, centre and radius of sphere.

**Vector Algebra:** Vector and its components, Different kinds of vectors, Addition and subtraction of vectors, scalar and vector products of two and three vectors.

**Differential Calculus:** Functions and their representation limit, continuity and differentiability of a function, Derivatives of elementary functions Derivatives of sum, product and quotient of functions, Derivatives of exponential, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions. Successive differentiation and Leibnitz theorem, Rolle’s theorem and Lagrange’s mean value theorem, L`Hospital’s Rule, Curvature, Asymptotes, and concepts of curve tracing, Maxima & minima of functions of one variable.

**Integral Calculus**: Integration, Integral of elementary functions, Integration by parts and by substitution, Integral of rational functions and trigonometric functions, Integration of irrational functions Definite Integrals, Area under simple curves.

**Statistics**: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation of discrete and grouped data.

**Section-D**

**VOCATIONAL SUBJECT 70 Marks.**

*Note: Each Vocational Subject (from Sl. No. 1 to 8) consists of the Syllabus of Common Engineering Sciences (a) and that of one Trade/Branch subject (b) appropriate to the academic qualification of an applicant.*

**(1) AE(FE) – Agricultural Engineering.**

** ****Farm Equipment Trade: **

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of** 2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :**Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.**Workshop :**Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.**Mechanics :**Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.**Electricity :**Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Farm Equipment Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

**Tractors and power tillers :**History of tractor and power tillers, technical specifications of various types and models of tractors and power tillers. Working principles of tractor and power tiller engines including fuel system, cooling system, lubrication, air intake and exhaust system. Working principles of clutch, gear box, final drive, steering, brake, hydraulic and electrical system. P.T.O. and belt pulley. Wheels and ballasting.**Farm machinery :**Agricultural mechanization, scope, benefits and limitations. Land reclamation machinery**.**Equipmentrequired for seedbed preparation, sowing, planting, interculture, irrigation, plant protection, harvesting and threshing. Implement hitching, safety in operation, Machinery management.- Servicing and maintenance : Selection of site for establishing centre for repair and overhaul of tractors. Selection of hand tools, workshop machines, materials, seals and packing. Repair and preventive maintenance of general purpose machine components like fasteners, bearing, coupling, spring and elements of rotary motion drive. Fault diagnosis of various systems of engine, tractor and power tiller, checking of wear and tear, repair of worn out components and maintenance. Routine and preventive maintenance of tractor, repair and maintenance of farm equipment and land reclamation machinery.

**(2) AE(FP) – Agricultural Engineering****.**

** ****Food Processing Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :**Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.**Workshop :**Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.**Mechanics :**Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.**Electricity :**Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Food Processing Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

Food material characteristics and properties. Chemistry and microbiology of food, its processing and preservation. Food additives, Browning reaction. Adulteration and food laws. Nutritive value of foods.

Unit operation in food processing like washing, cleaning, sorting, grading, sizing, screening, heating, cooling, blanching, smoking and material handling etc. and related equipments. Food preservation principles and methods. Food processes such as drying, dehydration, heat treatment, refrigeration, freezing, fermentation, irradiation, evaporation and concentration etc. Food packaging materials and methods.

Processing and preservation methods of fruits and vegetables, milk, fish, meat and egg etc. and manufacture of their different products.

Instrumentation in food industry, Instruments for measurement of process parameters,

Steam generation, refrigeration and plant utilities in a food processing plant, Equipment servicing, repair and maintenance of common post harvest (including pulse and cereal milling), food and milk processing operations. Food grade engineering materials. Cleaning, hygiene, sanitation and sterilization of food processing and handling equipment.

**(3) CE(CT) – Civil Engineering.**

** Construction Technology or Draftsman / ****Surveyor Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :**Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.**Workshop :**Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.**Mechanics :**Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.**Electricity :**Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Construction Technology or Draftsmanship / ****Surveyor Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

**Construction Material :**Rocks, bricks, tiles, sand, cement, lime and cement mortar, concrete, timber, steel, paints and varnishes, distemper, plastics, glasses, asphalt, sound and heat insulating materials.**Construction and Maintenance****:**Building Construction: Types of Brick and Stone masonry; Types and components of foundations, floors, doors and windows, arches and lintels, walls, stairs and roofs; Roads: Geometric features of road WBM and BBM pavements, Equipments used in road construction; Railways: Components, Construction and maintenance of tracks, Points and Crossings; Hydraulic Structure: Types and construction of Dams and Canals.**Surveying:**Various surveying instruments; Methods of chain surveying, compass surveying, plane table surveying, theodolite surveying, leveling and contouring.**Water Supply and Sanitation :**Sources of water, pumps, types of distribution systems, appurtenances in distribution system, sanitary system, construction and maintenance of sewers. Different types of water supply and sanitary fittings, Septic tanks.**Civil Engineering Drawings:**Signs and symbols used in Civil Engineering Drawings, Drawings related to : Different types of masonry bonds, Sub-structure details, Timber joints, Riveted, Bolted and Welded joints, and Steel and Timber trusses.**Estimation and Quantity Surveying :**Types and methods of estimates; Estimation of earthwork, masonry, RCC works, flooring, plastering, white washing and painting, sanitary fittings; Specifications of construction materials and various items of works**.**

**(4) ECE(ET or EM) – Electronics**** Communication Engineering.**

**Electronics Technology or Electronics**** Maintenance Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :**Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.**Workshop :**Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.**Mechanics :**Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.**Electricity :**Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

** (b) Electronics Technology or Electronics ****Maintenance Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

Circuits and Devices**:** Semiconductors, type of semiconductors, doping, p-n junction diodes and their characteristics, Bipolar transistor, transistor, biasing, CE, CB and CC configurations and their characteristics, principles of class A,AB,B & C amplifier, gain, bandwidth, introduction to feedback amplifiers, Sinusoidal oscillator, clipping and clamping circuits, Mono-stable and Astable multivibrators.

Fundamentals of Communication & Radio Engineering**:** E.M. wave propagation – ground wave, space wave and sky wave, Antenna radiation, different types of Antenna, Analog communication, AM, FM, principles of multiplexing – FDM & TDM, Introduction to digital communication, Multi – channel telephony, Super heterodyne receiver, typical circuits of various stages of transistorized receivers, working principle, RF and IF alignment, AVC and AGC.

T.V. and Audio System**:** Monochrome T.V., Interlace scanning, synchronization, blanking pulses, bandwidth requirement, VSB, Picture resolution, typical circuits of the Video amplifier and EHT stages, function of keyed AGC, AFC, various controls in a T.V. receiver, Acoustics, high fidelity and high quality sound, sound recording – Disc and Tape, pool recording systems, equalization, Microphones and speakers, P.A. system, Record player, concept of Hi-Fi stereo.

Instruments** :** Resistors, capacitors and inductors, Printed circuit board. Ammeter and Voltmeter – different types and their working principle. Analog and digital multimeters, DC power supply, Cathode ray oscilloscope and signal/function generators.

**(5) EE (ET or EM) – Electrical**** Engineering.**

**Electrical Technology or Electrical ****Maintenance Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :**Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.**Workshop :**Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.**Mechanics :**Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.**Electricity :**Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Electrical Technology or Electrical ****Maintenance Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

Basic Electricity**:** Primary, Secondary cell and charging of lead acid batteries, Capacitance and inductance their series, and parallel connection and energy storage, A.C. fundamental, wave shape, cycle, frequency, time period, peak, average and r.m.s. value, form factor, phase difference, peak factor, power factor, Series A.C. RLC circuit.

Electrical Machine**:** Magnetic effect of current, Faraday’s law of electro-magnetic induction, force acting on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field and torque production, D.C. machine-working principle of D.C. motor and D.C. generator, D.C. motor starting and speed control, common faults, causes, testing and applications, Single phase transformer – working principle. Turns ratio, voltage, current, power relation and applications, Single phase A.C. motor – commonly used single phase A.C. motors, starting, speed control, installation, testing, common faults and their causes and testing, Universal motor.

Instruments**:** Permanent magnet moving coil and moving iron, voltmeter and ammeter, Dynamometer type wattmeter, ohm meter, megger, induction type energy meter, their connection and application for measurement.

Electrical Appliances**:** Construction, principles, connection, common faults their causes and testing of the following equipments, Electric room heater, electric iron, electric stove, geyser, electric kettle, electric fans, (ceiling and table fan).

House Wiring** :** Cleat wiring, casing and capping wiring, batton wiring, conduit wiring and PVC wiring, controlling of lamps from two of three places. Schematic diagram of service connection.

Testing and connection of domestic wiring installation, Wiring faults and rectification, Installation of plate and pipe earthing, Procedure for measurement of earth resistance.

**Electrical Drawing:** Symbols used for common electrical equipments/appliances, Simple schematic and wiring – diagrams.

**(6) ME(MC) – Mechanical Engineering ****Mechanical Craftsmanship Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :** Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.

**Workshop :** Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.

**Mechanics :** Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.

**Electricity :** Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Mechanical Craftsmanship Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

Sheet metal operations, Tools and their specifications, carpentry (selection and wood working), pattern making; Various fitting tools and their specifications; Limits, fits and tolerances; Engineering and geometrical drawing; projections; isometric drawing; Reading engineering drawings;

Basic manufacturing processes like casting, forming welding and metal cutting, various casting processes, sand casting, die casting, centrifugal casting. Casting defects, melting furnaces.

Forging hammers and presses and various forging operations like upsetting, drawing, punching, etc. stock calculations.

Various welding processes and equipments, Are welding, gas welding, electrode specification and IS codes, Arc characteristics, TIG, MIG welding, soldering and brazing.

Various machine tools like lathe, milling, shaping, drilling machines, simple calculations, Various operations like turning, facing, threading, knurling, groove cutting etc., Taper, thread cutting calculations, gear cutting on milling machine; different Grinding methods;

Materials for machine tool components and cutting tools, cutting fluid, lubricants.

Measuring Tools (i.e. vernier, micrometer, gauges, comparators etc.).

**(7) ME(AT) – Mechanical Engineering ****Automobile Technology Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :** Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.

**Workshop :** Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.

**Mechanics :** Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.

**Electricity :** Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Automobile Technology Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

Different types of automobiles, types of IC engine and their components, auto cycle and diesel cycle, IHP, BHP and FHP and their calculations, cooling system, lubrication system, differential, transmission system, braking system, and lighting system, Two stroke/four stroke engines, valve timing diagrams, carburetor and injector repairing of trouble shooting and remedial measures, servicing of a vehicle, repairs, functions of gear box of scooter, car or truck, working of dynamo, fuel pumps, function of clutches, motor cycles or scooters, steering mechanism, wheels and tyres and their repairs.

**(8) ME(RAC)- Mechanical Engineering ****Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Trade:**

**(a) Common Engineering Sciences: ***(10 questions of 1-mark each & 5 questions of **2-marks each).*** **

**Engineering Drawing :** Lines, lettering and dimensioning, geometrical construction, scales, Engineering curves, conic sections, cycloid, Projection of points, straight lines, planes and solids, Sectional views, Isometric views, Auxiliary Projections.

**Workshop :** Hand tools for carpentry and fitting, forging, welding, specification and use; various operations : sawing, planning, chiseling, joining, filing, marking, chipping, gas cutting, maintenance and types of maintenance (preventive and corrective), materials for machine components.

**Mechanics :** Vector concept, force and force system, static equilibrium, Newton’s laws of motions and derived concepts like friction, centroid, area, moment of inertia, work energy principle and application of impulse.

**Electricity :** Concept of voltage, current, resistance, power and energy, relation between electrical, mechanical and thermal units, temperature weft of resistance. Ohm’s law, series, parallel, circuits and Kirchoff’s law, Capacitance and inductance.

**(b) Refrigeration & Air Conditioning Trade: ***(20 questions of 1-mark each & 15 questions of 2-marks each).*

Refrigeration systems, Air cycle refrigeration, vapor compression cycle, deviation of actual cycle from the theoretical cycle, study of charts and tables for refrigerants. Refrigeration of refrigeration processes on temperature – entropy and pressure – enthalpy diagrams. Absorption – compressor, evaporator, pumps, valves. Object of air conditioning, humidification and dehumidification, drying, evaporative cooling, comfort charts, year round air conditioning, air conditioning of cold storage, auditorium, aircrafts, locomotives. Sensible and latent heat, heat load calculation, Psychrometry, use of psychrometric chart, air distribution and Ventilation systems, Types of fans and their ratings and mountings.

## NEE III Exam Syllabus

*(For 3-year Diploma holder applicants in the allied disciplines / branches, see Appendix-III, seeking admission to Degree Module in Engineering & Technology).*

Full Marks : 150 Time: 3 Hours.

**SECTIONS:**

- Section-A Physics 25 marks.
- Section-B Chemistry 25 marks.
- Section-C Mathematics 30 marks.
- Section-D BRANCH SUBJECT 70 marks.

## Section-A

**PHYSICS 25 Marks.**

**Units:** Fundamental & derived units with particular reference to S.I. units-illustrations. Explanation of dimensions with examples.

**Mechanics:** Explanation of vector and scalar quantities with examples. Displacement as vector quality. Concepts of instantaneous velocity, acceleration. Equations of motion. Definition and explanation of Laws of motion, force, mass and weight with mathematical expressions, Universal Laws of gravitation and Projectile motion. Explanation of circular motion, Satellite motion in an orbit: Kepler’s Laws, escape velocity. Rigid body motion, moment of inertia, angular momentum, torque, Centre of mass, conservation of angular momentum. Simple harmonic motion and its geometric representation. Derivation of its equation. Concepts of amplitude, Oscillation, time period, frequency and phase with their mathematical expressions. Definition and explanation of work, power and energy with mathematical relation. Problems involving potential and kinetic energies and conservation of energy. Conservative and non-conservative forces. Static and Dynamic friction.

**Properties of Solids:** Definition and explanation of strain, stress, elastic limit, ultimate strength, Hooke’s Law and Young’s modulus. Compression bending, twisting and shear. Elastic moduli and their relations, Poisson’s ratio. Concepts and examples of properties e.g. hardness, malleability, ductility, brittleness, toughness abrasion resistance, fatigue.

**Properties of Liquids:** Thrust of a liquid and pressure, Pressure at different depths, Pascal’s Law and Hydraulic press, Buoyancy, Archimedes’ Principle: definition and explanation with illustration; surface tension, viscosity, fluidity and volatility.

**Heat & Thermodynamics**: Heat and temperature, Construction of mercury thermometers. Measurement, measuring scales and devices.

Definition and explanation of linear expansion. Area and volume expansion with mathematical relation.

Expansion of gas at constant temperature and at constant pressure. Ideal gas equation.

Measurement of specific heat capacity, relation between Cp and Cv, Isothermal and adiabatic process. Explanation of change of state of matter with change of temperature. Definition of latent heat of fusion and vaporization and numerical examples.

Transfer of heat, Explanation and examples of conduction, Convection and radiation processes. Thermal conductivity. Idea of black body radiation. Stefan-Boltzmann Law.

Explanation of first and second laws of Thermodynamics with examples.

**SOUND: ** Wave motion, Concept of longitudinal and transverse waves; Definition of period, frequency, wave length, amplitude and phase; Speed of sound wave; wave propagation in a medium; Doppler effect.

Properties of sound waves, Reflection, Refraction and Superposition of waves, stationary waves, beats, Vibration of Strings and Air columns, concept of resonance; Echo, Reverberation.

**LIGHT: **Explanation of light wave, wave front, ray, velocity of light.

Laws of reflection, reflection in different types of mirrors (plane, spherical, cylindrical, parabolic) with their geometrical drawing. Definition of image, focal length, radius of curvature, magnification with formula, numerical examples and application.

Laws of refraction, refractive index, total internal reflection, concave and convex lenses and image formation through them, formula connecting object and image distances, application in telescopes, microscopes, theodolite etc., refraction through prism.

Elementary ideas of electromagnetic waves. Wave nature of light. Young’s double slit experiment and Fringe width. Single slit diffraction, polarisation.

**Electrostatics:** Explanation of charge on the basis of electron theory, charging by friction, force between electric charges, concept of unit charge, electric field and electric potential, p.d. and its measurement, definition of capacitance of parallel plate capacitor, capacitors in series and parallel. Dielectric constant.

**Current Electricity:** Definition of emf, potential difference, and current with illustrations. Basic direct current circuits: Units of current, resistance and conductance, Ohm’s Law and solution of simple problems, effect of temperature on resistance. Series and parallel connections of resistors. Kirchoff’s rules, their applications and examples.

**Magnetic Properties of Materials: **Type of magnetic substances, magnetic flux, flux density, relative permeability, magnetic properties of soft iron and steel.

**Electromagnetism:** Nature of magnetic field due to a straight conductor, a circular conductor and a solenoid, Fleming’s left hand and right hand rules, Effect of current flowing through two parallel conductors, Biot – Savart Law.

**Electromagnetic induction**: e. m. f. induced in a coil by magnet, Faraday’s law of induction, Calculation of e.m.f., Direction of induced e .m .f. Lenz’s Law, Explanation of eddy current and explanation of self and Mutual induction, Calculation of self and mutual inductance.

Generation of alternating e.m.f. Concept of reactance : Capacitive and inductive, Impedance. Simple a.c. circuits analysis.

**Modern Physics:** Photoelectric effect, structure of atom, atoms and molecules, intermolecular forces, chemical bonding. Crystal structure with simple examples.

**Radio-activity**: Explanation of fission and fusion processes.

**Semiconductors:** Properties and basic principles, p and n types, Action of transistors.

**Section-B**

**CHEMISTRY 25 Marks.**

**Physical Chemistry:**

**States of Matter: **Gaseous State: Postulates of kinetic theory of ideal gases; Derivation of kinetic equation; Derivation of Ideal gas equation. Continuity of states, Liquefaction of gases. Solid State: Structure of solids, unit cell, fcc, bcc, ccp structure of solids.

**Solution and Colloidal solution****: **Concentration of solutions: Mass percent, Mass fraction, Mole fraction, Molality, Normality, Molarity. Dilute solutions: Raoult’s law, its statement and explanation; Ideal and non-ideal solutions; Colligative properties: Relative lowering of vapour pressure, Elevation in boiling point, Depression in freezing point, Osmotic pressure and its determination. Determination of molecular masses based on colligative properties; Van’t Hoff theory of dilute solutions, Van’t Hoff factor.

**Colloidal solutions:** Definition, Classification, and Preparation of colloidal solutions; Properties of colloidal state: Tyndall effect, Electrophoresis, Brownian movement; Protective colloids.

**Thermodynamics and Thermochemistry****: **First law of thermodynamics, mathematical formulation of the law, Isothermal and adiabatic changes; Relation between heat capacities at constant pressure and constant volume; Second law of thermodynamics: Carnot cycle and derivation of an expression for efficiency of a reversible engine. Concept and physical significance of Entropy, Gibbs energy and work-function relation; Gibbs energy change and chemical spontaneity. Thermochemistry: Heats of reaction, Hess’s Law of constant heat summation.

**Kinetics and Chemical Equilibrium****:** Rate of reaction, law of mass action, velocity constant. Reversible reactions and chemical equilibrium, Equilibrium constant. Le Chatelier’s principle (statement, explanation and it’s industrial applications). Molecularity and Order of reaction, First and Second order of reactions, Rate law equation and mechanism of reactions. **Ionic Equilibria**: Modern Ionic theory; Modern concepts on acids and bases; Strength of acids and bases, Ionic product for water, pH scale. Common-ion effect and Solubility product, Their applications in qualitative inorganic analysis and indicators.

**Inorganic Chemistry:**

**Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding: **Electrons, protons and neutrons, their charges and relative masses. The early models of the atom. Rutherford’s model, Hydrogen spectra; Failure of Rutherford’s model. Bohr’s model of hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms; Dual nature of electron, de-Broglie equation, Uncertainty principle. Quantum numbers (i.e., quantum numbers and their application to electronic structure of atoms), Concept of atomic orbital, Pauli’s exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule, Aufbau principle.

Ionic Bonds: Definition, factors influencing the formation of ionic compounds, Lattice energy of ionic compounds. Covalent Bonds: Nature of covalent bond (Lewis concept), Concept of orbital overlap in bond formation, Sigma and pi bonds, Hybridization of atomic orbital (sp, sp,^{2} sp^{3} hybridization), Properties of covalent compounds, Structure of simple molecules such as H_{2}O, NH_{3},CH_{4}, C_{2}H_{4}, C_{2}H_{2}, PCI_{5} and SF_{6.} Co-ordinate covalent bonds: Lewis concept, structure of H_{3}O^{+} and NH_{4}^{+} ions on the basis of hybridization, Properties of co-ordinate covalent compounds.

Metallic bonds: Bonding in metals (elementary treatment only), Insulators, Conductors and Semi-conductor, Extrinsic semi-conductors (n-type and p-type). Hydrogen bond: Types of hydrogen bond, Consequences of hydrogen bonding.

**Periodic Properties of Elements****:** Mendeleef’s periodic table and periodic law; Long form of periodic table, its merits and demerits. General characteristics, Properties of s-block, p-block and d-block elements. Trend of periodic properties of elements such as atomic volume, atomic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity and electronegativity in periodic table (qualitative treatment only).

**Metallurgy****:** General principles of extraction of metals, Occurrence of metals, sources of different metals. General method of extraction of metals by pyrometallurgical process and by electrolysis (different principles only).

**Ferrous metallurgy:** Ores of iron, Metallurgy of iron and manufacture of steel. Properties of Cast iron, Wrought iron, Steel; Effects of carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulphur, manganese on cast iron and steel.

**Non-ferrous metallurgy**: Ores of aluminium and copper, Metallurgy of aluminium and copper; Properties and uses of Lead, Zinc, Tin and Chromium.

**Alloys:** Effects of carbon and other alloying elements on the properties of steel. Composition and uses of the following alloys: Brass, Bronze, German silver, Bell metal, Gun metal, Duralumin, Nanganin, Type metal, Nichrome and Solder.

**The chemistry of some chemicals:** Ammonia, Nitric acid, Sulphuric acid, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen and Oxygen.

**Organic Chemistry****:**

**Introduction: **Classification and nomenclature of organic compounds. Qualitative detection of Nitrogen, Sulphur and Halogens.

**Hydrocarbons**: Saturated and unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. Preparation and properties with special reference to methane, ethane, ethylene, acetylene. Aromatic hydrocarbons: Preparation and properties of benzene; Structure of benzene. **Haloalkanes and Haloarenes**: Preparation, properties and uses of haloalkanes and polyhalogen derivatatives such as CHCl_{3, } CHI_{3}, DDT.

**Compounds with functional groups containing oxygen****:** General methods of preparation and properties of Alcohols and phenols, Aldehydes and ketones, Carboxylic acid and acid derivatives**. Compounds with functional groups containing nitrogen:** Preparation and properties of Nitrocompounds, Amines and Azo-compounds.

**Industrial Chemistry: Plastics & Polymers****:** Definition of a polymer; Polymerization (Addition and condensation); Thermoplastic and thermosetting resins; Some commercially important plastics. Rubbers and their vulcanization.

**Fuels****:** Definition of fuel, classification of fuels with examples; Calorific value (gross and net). Solid Fuels: Different types of solid fuels, ignition point, Carbonization of coal, Destructive distillation of wood (name of different products only).Liquid fuels: Fractional distillation of crude oil (only names of different fractions, boiling ranges and uses of different fractions); Properties of liquid fuels: Flash point, power point, viscosity, specific gravity carbon residue; Octane and cetane number. Gaseous fuels: Different commercial gaseous fuels with their composition and calorific value; Manufacture of Producer gas and Water gas (principles with physico-chemical reactions only).

**Water****:** Hard and soft water, Boiler feed water, Scale formation, Priming and foaming, Caustic embrittlement, Water softening methods, Treatment of water for town supply and sewage disposal.

**Corrosion and its protection: **Definition, Theories of corrosion, Factors affecting rate of corrosion, Rusting of iron, Demerits of corrosion, Prevention of corrosion by various methods**.**

**Environmental Pollution: **Air and water pollution: causes and remedy.

**Section-C**

**MATHEMATICS 30 Marks.**

**Algebra**: Arithmetic, Geometric and Harmonic Progressions, Permutation and Combination, Binomial expansion for positive index, middle term, greatest term, binomial expansion for general index. Determinants up to third order, their properties and application to solve linear algebraic equations (Cramer’s rule), concept of a matrix, types of matrices, equality of matrices, operations of addition, scalar multiplication and multiplication of matrices, determinant of a square matrix, transpose, adjoint and inverse of a matrix, consistency and inconsistency of a system of linear equations, solving a system of linear equations in two or three variables using inverse of a matrix.

**Trigonometry**: Inverse trigonometric functions, solution of inverse trigonometric equations.

**Coordinate Geometry(2D)**: Points and their coordinates in a plane, distance formula, area of a triangle, condition for the collinearity of three points and section formula, various forms of equations of a line, intersection of lines, angles between two lines, condition of concurrency of three lines distance of a point from a line, pair of lines, circle, tangents and normal to a circle, simple problems on parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.

**Differential Calculus**: Partial derivatives, maxima & minima of single & two variables, tangent and normal, curvature and derivative of arc.

**Integral Calculus**: Integration of rational and irrational functions, integration of transcendental functions, definite integration, area bounded by curves, length of arc and volume of surface revolution.

**Differential equation**: Linear differential equations of first and second order & their applications.

**Vector Calculus**: Gradient, divergence & curl, line integral, surface integral & volume integral.

**Coordinate Geometry (3D)**: Points and coordinates on 3-dimensional space, Distance between points, direction cosines, direction ratios, projections, equation to a plane, angle between planes, distance of a point from a plane, angle between lines & planes, condition of co planarity of two lines, shortest distance between two lines, condition for the intersection of two lines.

**Probability**: Problems on probabilities, conditional probability, Bye’s Theorem, Binomial & Poisson distributions.

**Section D **

**BRANCH SUBJECT (70 marks)**

*Note: Applicants should choose only one Branch** subject from Sl. No. 1 to 8 appropriate to their academic qualification in 3-year Diploma.*

** Agricultural Engineering (70 Marks)**

**General Engineering Science: **Laws of thermodynamics: Zeroth law, first law, second law. Concept of enthalpy, internal energy, entropy and absolute temperature. Properties of pure substances and mixtures, reversibility and irreversibility. Thermodynamic cycles, Carnot cycle and steam power cycles, otto, disel and dual cycles. Equivalent forces at a point, simplest resultants in two and three dimensions, equations of equilibrium, free body diagrams and reactions. Two dimensional frames and trusses. Principle of virtual work, frication forces. Belt, rope and chain drive and power screws. Centroids, mass centers, second moment and product of inertia of plant area. Velocity, acceleration, rectilinear, curvilinear co-ordinate system and relative motion, particle dynamics, equation of motion. Concept of stress and strain, normal and shearing stresses and stains. Stress-strain diagrams for uniaxial loading. Deformation of axially loaded members, torsion of circular shafts. Stress and deflections in closed coiled helical strings subjects to flexural loads. Reactions for statically determine beams, relationships between load, shearing force and bending moment, shear force and bending moment diagrams. Theory of simple bending stresses, shearing stresses in beams, principal stresses and principal planes, principle strains, principal stresses in 3D, relation between elastic constants, combined torsion and bending, pressure vessels, biaxial, stresses, yield theories, deflection of beams.

**Properties of fluids**: Pressure and its measurement. Hydrostatic forces on surface. Kinematics and dynamics of fluid flow. Dimensional analysis and similitude. Laminar and turbulent flow in pipes, general equation for head loss, energy loss trough pipe fittings.

**Measurement of distance and areas**: Principle and methods of chain surveying, prismatic compass and chain traversing. Theodolite traversing. Plane table surveying including two point and three point problems. Leveling and contouring, measurement of areas and volumes. Engineering properties of granular materials, soil classifications, fundamental definitions and relationships. Determination of index properties of soil. Permeability and seepage analysis. Stress distribution. Shear strength. Mohr’s circle of stresses. Compaction. Active and passive earth pressures. Stability analysis of earthen slopes.

**Farm Power and Machinery**: Salient features of various source of farm power used in India, Farm engine, tractors and power tillers, their selection, operation and adjustment. Principles of working and construction of I.C. engine. Engine valves and operating mechanism, fuel and combustion. Different systems of I.C. engine such as fuel, lubrication, cooling, intake, exhaust etc. Study of clutch, brake, gearbox, differential, final drive hydraulic and electrical system of farm tractors. Use of electrical motors as a source of farm power. Scope, need and constraints of mechanization. Types of implements, field capacities, constructional details, design criteria and principals of operations of different types of hand tools. Animal, power tiller and tractor operated primary and secondary tillage implements such as indigenous plough, mould board plough, disk plough, rototillers, harrow, cultivator, subsoilar, leveler etc. Types principles and constructional details of weeder, seed and fertilizer drill, planters, transplanters, sprayer, duster, mower, vertical conveyor reaper, threshers and combine harvesters.

**Soil and Water Conservation Engineering**: Water resources utilization in India. Ground water resources development and utilization, Hydraulics of wells, open well and tube well design and construction. Water lifts and irrigation pumps. Measurement of irrigation water. Water conveyance and its control. Irrigation efficiencies, irrigation scheduling. Design of irrigation channel and seepage analysis. Design of underground pipelines. Soil-plant-water relationships. Land grading and field layout for efficient irrigation. Introductory concept of farm irrigation methods: border, check basin, furrow, sprinkler and drip. Drainage: importance, problems, types and requirements in agriculture, drainage coefficient, dynamics of soil-water, measurement of soil permeability, field drainage layout patterns.

**Hydrology:** Hydrologic cycle, precipitation, infiltration, evaporation, runoff and its estimation and measurement. Types and mechanics of wind and water erosions, biological and engineering measures of controlling erosion, gully control and gully control structures. Vegetative waterways and their design, stream bank erosion and its control, design, construction and maintenance of farm ponds. Introduction to watershed management.

**Post Harvest/Process, Food Engineering and Farm Structures:** Engineering properties of biological materials: Rheology of agricultural products. Mixing and mixers. Psychrometry; theory of grain drying, different types of grain dryers and dryer efficiency. Size-reduction and energy requirement, Kick’s law and Rittinger’s law, roller mill, burr mill and hammer mill. Storage of grains, lateral and vertical pressure relationship. Importance of agricultural processing: process of cleaning, grading and sorting, and related equipments. Material handling equipments. Processing of cereals, pulses, oil seeds. Layout, maintenance and testing of related machinery and plant. By-products utilization; combustion, gasification and other chemical and bio chemical transformations. Properties and classification of building material like bricks, lime, cement, sand, coarse aggregates, timber, asbestos, glass etc. Animal shelters and storage structures in fans.

**Civil Engineering (70 Marks) **

**Strength of Materials & Theory of Structures:**

Normal stress, shearing stress, Normal strain, Hooke’s Law, Stress-strain behaviour of mild steel, Poisson’s Ratio, Shearing strain, Torsion of Circular Shaft, Relations among load, Shear and Bending Moment, Shear and Bending-Moment Diagrams, Pure Bending, Bending of Members Made of several Materials, Shearing Stresses in a Beam, Mohr’s Circle for Plane Stress, Principal Stresses, Maximum Shearing Stress, Euler’s Formula for Pin-Ended Columns and columns with other End conditions. Equation of the Elastic Curve by Double Integration Method, Slope and Deflection of Determinate Beams by Moment-Area Theorems, Deflections and Slope by Energy Methods, Castigliano’s Theorem, Stability and Degree of Indeterminacy, Rolling loads and Influence lines for Determinate Beams, Trusses, and Floor Girders, Cables and Three-Hinged Arch.

**Water Resources Engineering: **Hydrology: rainfall, stream flow measurements, runoff, hydrographs, flood studies, reservoir and channel routing, flood forecasting, flood protection measures, river training works, well hydraulics; Irrigation: Command area, duty and delta, canal outlets, crop-water requirement.

**Fluid Mechanics: **Properties of Fluid, Manometry, Forces on Plane and Curved surfaces, Flow classification, Continuity Equation, Momentum Equation, and Energy Equation and their Applications, Orifices, Venturimeter, Weirs and Notches, Laminar and Turbulent Flow through Pipes, Darcy Weisbach Equation, Moody Diagram, Steady Uniform Flow in Open Channels, Manning’s Formula.

**Geotechnical Engineering: **Preliminary definitions & relationship, Determination of index properties, classification of soils, soil structure and clay mineralogy, permeability, Darcy’s law, seepage analysis, compaction, one dimensional consolidation, Terzaghi’s theory, shear strength, theoretical consideration and tests, shallow and deep foundations, soil exploration.

**Highway and Railway Engineering: **HighwayGeometric Design: Cross sectional elements, Sight distances, horizontal and vertical alignments; Types and components of Pavement structures, Design of Flexible Pavements; Traffic Characteristics: Road user and vehicular characteristics, traffic volume studies, O-D studies and traffic capacity studies;

**Railways:** Components, construction and maintenance of rail tracks, points and crossings.

**Surveying: **Contouring, Theodolite and its adjustment, measurement of angles and setting out lines, Trigonometrical leveling, Tacheometry, Curves and different methods of setting out curves, Introduction to electronic Theodolites and Total Stations.

**Structural Design: **Working stress methods of design, singly and doubly reinforced sections, rectangular and Tee beams, shear, torsion and development length, one and two way slabs, short and long column, Design of isolated footings, Introduction of limit state design, Design for flexure, shear and compression, Design of riveted and welded connections, tension and compression members, splicing and lacing, Beam column connection, roof trusses.

**Environmental Engineering: **Estimation of quantity of water, per capita demand, population forecasting, water quality parameters, treatment of water, distribution system, Estimation of quantity of sewage, dry weather flow and storm run off, sewer appurtenances, characteristics of sewage, treatment and disposal of sewage, sludge digestion.

**Computer Science and Engineering (70 Marks)**

**Operating System & System Software: **Overview of Operating Systems, Operating Systems Structures, Uses, Types and Functions of Operating Systems. File Systems, File System Implementation. Concept of Process-Process Management, Process Synchronization and Deadlocks, Inter-process Communications, CPU Scheduling. Memory Management – Allocation Schemes, Paging Segmentation, Virtual Memory, Demand Paging, Paging Replacement Algorithms. Disk Management – Disk Scheduling Algorithms. System Softwares- Functions and Uses of System Software, Assemblers, Loaders, Linkers, Pass Structure of an Assembler, Loading Schemes, Macro and Co-Routines, Macro Processing and Macro Calls, Sub-Routines and Sub-Routine Calls.

**Digital Electronics & Elements of Logic Design: **Various Number Systems and their Implementation, Binary Arithmetic, 1’s Complement, 2’s Complement, 9’s Complements & 10’s Complements of a number. Floating Point Numbers, Boolean Algebra and Logic Functions. Different Methods of Minimizing Boolean Functions. Design of Combinatorial Circuits – Adders, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Decoder, Parity Generator and Checker, Comparator Etc. Switching Algebra, Function Decomposition, Symmetric Function, Contact Networks, Design of Sequential Circuits (Synchronous & Asynchronous) Flip-Flops, Register, Counter Fault Tolerant, Hazard, Stuck-At-Fault, Bridging Fault, Stuck-Open-Fault.

**Microprocessor, Computer Architecture & Organization : **8085 Microprocessor Architecture, Instruction Set, Assembly Language Program, Counters and Delays, Interrupts, Interfacing Data Converters, Programmable Interface Devices : 8155 Multipurpose Programmable Device, 8279 Keyboard/Display Interface, 8254 Interval Timer, 8259 Interrupt Controller, 8237 DMA Controller.

CPU Structure and Function, Basic Idea of Hardware And Software, Instruction Sets : Characteristics, Functions and Formats, Addressing Modes; Computer Arithmetic, Control Unit : Microprogram Control, Hardwired Control; Memory : Internal Memory Organization, External Memory (Magnetic Disk, RAID, Optical Memory, Magnetic Disk), Cache Memory and Mapping Procedures; I/O Organization : Interrupts, Programmed I/O, Interrupt-Driven I/O, DMA, I/O Channels, Standard I/O Interfaces; RISC and CISC Processor, Basics of Parallel Processing, Pipelining.

**Programming Language Concepts : **Programming in C And C++, Syntax, Preprocessor Directives, Built-In Data Types, User-Defined Data Types, Operators and Precedence, Loops and Conditional Flow of Control, Enumerated Types, Arrays, Variable Types and Scope of Variables, Global, File and Namespace, Functions, Pass By Value, Pass By Reference, Input and Output Handling, File Handling. Operator and Function Overloading, Single Inheritance, Polymorphism, Virtual Member Functions, Constructor and Destructor, Information Hiding, Encapsulation, Data Members, Member Functions, Public and Private Access.

**Data Structures: **Arrays, Link Lists, Stacks, Queues, Trees, Graphs : Representations, Implementations and their Applications – Arithmetic Expression Evaluation, Recursion, Priority Queues, Etc., Graph and Tree Traversals, Basic Search Techniques : Tree Searching: Binary Search Trees, Avl Trees, Etc., Hashing Techniques. Basic Sorting Techniques : Bubble Sort, Insert Sort, Selection Sort, Radix Sort, Tree Indexes : M-Way Search Trees, B-Trees, B+Trees.

**Electronics and Communication (70 Marks)**** **

**Electronic Devices and Circuits:**

**Analog Devices and circuits: **Physics of Semiconductor Materials & Components, Energy band diagram, Fermilevel, Hall effects.

**Devices:** Diodes, BJT,s FET,s, Thristors, Tunnel diodes, Basics of IC,s and operational amplifiers.

**Circuits:** Biasing circuits of transistors, Design of power supplies using Diodes and transistors-voltage Regulator Circuits Transistor Amplifier (BJT & FET), Power amplifiers, feedback amplifiers, oscillators (qualitative analysis only). Multivibrators, Time base circuits. Regulated Power supply. Time base circuit Saw-tooth voltage and current generators, transistor switches, wave shaping circuit (diode and transistors) Electro-static and magnetic deflection methods, low frequency h-parameter transistor & FET models, Pi models.

**Digital Devices and Circuits**: **Number systems:** logic gates-Boolean Algebra-Transistor as a switch-logic families-Arithmetic and logic circuits-Counters and shift registers-A/D and D/A converters, Multiplexer, Demultiplexer, Encoder, Decoder.

**Microprocessors:** Architecture-Assembly language programming of 8085-peripheral devices-Interfacing of memory and devices. Semi Conductor Memories: RAM, ROM, Storage devices, printer, Connectors, floppy drives, Organization of computer, simple programme.

**Electronic Instrumentation and Measurements**: Systems, units and standards of Measurement, AC and DC indicating instruments, AC and DC bridge circuits, Error Analysis of generalized measurement systems, transducers (Strain gauge, LVDT. Thermistor, Thermocouple etc.) Electronic Measuring Instruments, CRO, Digital Ammeter, Millimeter, Voltmeter, Time and Frequency measurements, Signal Generators, Q-meter, Wattmeter, Energy meter.

**Neteorks-Filters And Microwave Engineering: **Network theorems, Single and Two port networks, T-type, II-type ladder type networks. Transmission lines: Characteristics impedances, Attenuators, Equalizers, Basics of wave guides-Transmission line charts.

**Filters:** type, simple design problems, Basics of Electromagnetic theory , Maxwell’s equations. Basics principles of wave propagation. Fundamentals of Antennas and Radar, Basics of Microwaves, EM Spectrum Principles of microwaves devices and circuits.

**Communication Engineering: **Introduction to signal analysis-Fourier series and Fourier transform. Sampling theorem, Parseval’s theorem, convolution, Transmission through linear systems: AM,FM PM, Pulse modulation; PCM: Amplitude limiting in FM, Pre-emphasis, De-emphasis; Noise in AM and FM: Multiplexing-FDM, TDM; ASK, FSK, Block schematic of different transmitters for AM, FM,SSB, ISB systems; Superheterodyne receivers, Mixers, AGC, AFC, spectrum of EM waves; Propagation of EM waves-sky waves- sky wave, ground wave, space wave, skip distance, maximum usable frequency; Antenna fundamentals and Radiation; Communication systems;: Principles of telegraphy, telephony and television broadcasting , Basics of satellite and optical fibre communications: Fundamentals of telematics.

**Electrical Engineering (70 Marks)**

**Electrical Circuits: **Phasors and phasor algebra, balanced and unbalanced poly-phase circuit, Test signals, Star-Delta transformation, Network theorems, Parameters of electromagnetic circuits, resonance in R-L-C Series and Parallel circuits, Network analysis by mesh and node methods.

**Electrical Engineering Materials: **Conducting, Insulating materials and Magnetic materials, Properties and applications

**Electrical Instruments and Measurements: **Principles of measurements: Classification, accuracy and sensitivity, damping and control forces, shunt and multiplier, Measurement of resistance: Low, medium and high. Principle and uses of DC potentiometers, AC Bridges. Indicating instruments: Multimeter, PF meters, synchroscope.

**Electrical Machines: **Classification of D.C. machines: Constructional features, e.m.f., torque, excitations, motor performance, speed, power, size considerations, speed control, efficiency.

**Transformers:** Induced e.m.f., equivalent circuits, regulation, different efficiencies. Three phase induction machines: Torque characteristics, Starting, equivalent Circuits. Three Phase Synchronous Machines: Generation, voltage regulation, parallel operation, synchronous motor, starting and V-curves, Single phase motors: type, starting characteristics.

**Generation, Transmission and Distribution: ****Generation:** Thermal, Hydel and Nuclear Power Stations, Prime movers and alternators.

**Transmission:** Voltage levels, line conductors, electrical line parameters of short and medium lines, voltage regulation, corona. **Distribution:** D.C. and A.C. systems, voltage level, types of distribution feeders and distributors, voltage drop and effects, power factor improvement plant.

**Substation:** Different types, site selection, equipments, electrical earthing.

**Switchgear:** Switches, isolators, circuit breakers and their types. Protection: Fault current and protective devices, fuses, relay functions, alternator, Transformer protection, thermal relays, over voltage-causes, effect and protective devices.

**Electrical Estimation and Costing: **Estimation of materials for industrial and residential installations. UPS and small diesel generating-set and accessories. Cost estimation of materials and selection criteria, Design and calculation of the cost of 400V/230V three phase 4 wire, 100-500 KW overhead line, Tenders.

**Electrical Power Utilizaion: **Design of lighting system. Electrical Heating: Resistance heating, Induction heating, Arc heating and Dielectric heating, types of electric welding Electrochemical process: Principles, equipment and procedure. Electrical Drives: Characteristics of various electric drives, speed control, starting and breaking, mechanical consideration, selection of motors.

**Power Electronics: **Power diodes and Darlington Pair. Thyristor: Principle, thyristor family, firing circuits, applications, Selenium rectifiers, uncontrolled and controlled rectification, Power MOSFETS.

**Digital Electronics: **Digital signals, gates, Boolean algebra, logic families, multiplexures / demultiplexure, Encoders/decoders, flip-flops, registers, counters and applications of logic gates, OPAMPS in timing circuits, A/D and D/A conversion.

**Computer Programming: **Concept of low level and high level languages, Block-diagram, concept of flow chart, and algorithm, Assemblers, Macros, sub-routines, co-routines, loaders, linkers, editors and compilers, programming and file handling in C and C++.

**Mechanical Engineering (70 Marks)**

**Engineering Mechanics & Strength Of Materials**: Vector concepts, rest and motion, Introduction to force systems (Parallel, Concurrent & Coplanar); Free Body Diagram; Equilibrium principle; Static analysis of systems; Friction and impending motion; rolling and sliding of cylinders; Newton’s law of motion and derived concepts. Centroid; Area & mass moment of inertia. Work-Energy principle; Impulse; Collision of two bodies; Plane motion of particles and applications; Static analysis of simple structures; Method of joints and method of sections. Virtual work; combined motion of rotation and translation; Transmission of power by belt and gear drives.

**Stress & strain:** Shear stresses, Principal stress and strain, Mohr’s circle for stress and strain analysis, Beams & columns; Shear force and bending moment diagram. Theories of Failures; Columns, Struts; Stress & strain analysis of shafts under torsion, analysis of springs.

**Engineering Materials**: Mechanical, thermal, chemical properties, structure of materials, alloys. Iron and its alloys, Iron carbon phase diagrams, steel and their important alloys of iron, heat treatment processes, Elastic & plastic behaviors; Plastic deformation. Effect of various alloying elements on mechanical properties of Iron: Bearing alloys; Powder metallurgy; Fick’s law. Commonly used engineering materials for tools, engineering components and household objects.

**Design of Machine Element**: Concept of FOS, material selection, engineering materials, Design of Rivets, Screws, Bolts with detail analysis. Cotter and Knuckle joints, shafts, keys and couplings, Springs – helical and leaf types.

**Hydraulics and Hydraulic Machines**: Properties of liquid, hydraulic pressure and its measurement, Forces on immersed bodies; Center of pressure; Buoyancy stability of immersed and floating bodies; Flow of liquids: 1-D, 2-D, & 3-D flows; steady, unsteady, laminar and turbulent flows; continuity equation, momentum equation, and energy equation and their applications, Euler equation and Bernoulli’s equation; Orifice, mouth piece and nozzles, flow through pipes and piping systems, losses in piping systems; fundamentals of channel flow, hydraulic jump; flow measurements : Dimensional analysis and associated theorems. Non dimensional numbers and their significances; Stream function and velocity potential function; streamline, streakline and pathline; Rotational and irrotational flow, circulation and vorticity; Free and forced vortex; Basic flows like rectilinear, source, sink, doublet etc. Different types of pump, reciprocating and rotary pumps, operation and maintenances of pumps, Cavitation and NPSH; Characteristic curves of pumps, losses and efficiencies of pumps. Compressors, blowers and fans. Different types of turbines, Francis, Kaplan and Pelton turbines, operation and maintenance of turbines; characteristic curves, work done and efficiency of turbine, specific speed and selection of pumps and turbines. Hydraulic machinery like hydraulic ram, hydraulic coupling and torque converter, hydraulic jack, screw pump, Gear pump, Vane pump etc.

**Thermal Engineering**: Basic thermodynamic concepts; System and surrounding; Thermodynamic Properties; Intensive and Extensive properties; Point and path functions; Zeroth law, first and second laws of thermodynamics and associated corollaries; Concepts of absolute temperature, internal energy, enthalpy &entropy; Clausius inequality, concept of availability, Maxwell’s relations. Application of thermodynamic laws, reversibility & irreversibility , internal & external irreversibility; Pure substances and mixtures. Thermodynamic cycles: Carnot cycle, Rankine cycle, Joule-Brayton cycle ; Air standard cycles; Otto cycle and Diesel cycles. Ideal gas compression and compressors, jet propulsion, gas compressors, stream generators, Fuel and combustion, I.C. engine, calculation of efficiencies, testing of IC. Engines; Open and closed gas turbine cycles, introduction to heat and mass transfer; heat exchanger; LMTD and NTU methods. Principles of refrigeration, air refrigeration system, Vapor compression refrigeration system, refrigeration cycles, use of T-S & P-H charts for refrigeration, refrigerants and their properties, vapor absorption system, psychometric properties and charts. Types of power plants; components of steam power plant; hydro-electric power plant, nuclear power plants, diesel power plant. Elementary solar and geothermal power systems.

**Theory of Machines**: Kinematics and kinetics; mechanisms and structure; inversions; kinematic chains; different types of mechanisms; degree of freedom & its determination; Grashof’s criteria; velocity analysis; acceleration analysis; gear trains; balancing of rotating masses; brakes & dynamometer.

**Production and Industrial Engineering**: Fundamentals of metal cutting, tool geometry, Calculations of cutting forces and tool life; General purpose machine tool and their operations, various welding techniques like arc, gas, resistance etc. Metal forming methods like rolling, drawing, extrusion, press working, powder metallurgy, heat treatment of metals, Introduction to NC and CNC machines, basics of measuring instruments, study of transducers, static and dynamic characteristic of instruments, Introduction to metrology: Limits, fits and tolerance, Mechanical and optical comparators; Measuring instruments of angles; measurements of surface roughness and thread profiles, calibration of various measuring instruments. Production planning; Inventory control; material and wage calculation; elements of cost; network analysis; work study and estimating machining time; break even analysis; TQM & ISO 9000; Shop floor management; Machines & Industrial safety.

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